Vegetation protects soil from erosion by wind and rainwater.
Vegetation partly decays forming humus making the soil fertile.
Some plants roots, barks and leaves are used for medicine.
Climate Regulation: Vegetation influences local and regional climate patterns. Forests, for example, can moderate temperatures by providing shade, reducing heat absorption, and creating microclimates. Vegetation also influences wind patterns and helps regulate humidity levels.
Some plants such as bamboo shoots and wild fruits are consumed as food.
Some fibrous plants such as sisal and jute are used for making ropes, sacks, mats, etc.
Latex from rubber tree is used for manufacture of rubber used in tire manufacture.
Aesthetic and Recreational Value: Vegetation enhances the beauty and aesthetic appeal of landscapes. Parks, gardens, and natural areas with diverse vegetation provide spaces for recreational activities, relaxation, and cultural enjoyment. Green spaces also contribute to mental and physical well-being.
Wildlife Support: Vegetation provides food, shelter, and nesting sites for wildlife. Different plant species attract specific animals, including birds, insects, mammals, and reptiles, contributing to biodiversity and maintaining ecological balance.
Nutrient Cycling: Vegetation contributes to nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Through processes like decomposition, plants and microorganisms break down organic matter and release nutrients back into the soil, making them available for other organisms and promoting healthy ecosystem functioning.
These significances highlight the vital role that vegetation plays in supporting ecosystems, human well-being, and the overall health of the planet. Conservation and sustainable management of vegetation are crucial for maintaining these benefits and ensuring the long-term survival of diverse plant communities.
Failure of the relations among the heads of state e.g. Amin conflicted with Nyerere due to the 1971 coup and Nyerere vowed never to sit with Amin on the same table.
The EAA- the top body of heads of states failed to meet with the rise of Amin.
The member states failed to respect the principle of regional economic cooperation and adopted protectionism i.e. not allowing other goods to flow from other countries.
The member states failed to expand the membership and yet this had been proposed.
The EAC leadership failed to control the bickering among the heads of states e.g. Amin, Nyerere and Kenyatta.
Failure to control neo – colonialism
Failure to ensure even and balanced distribution of the benefits e.g. Kenya was progressing at a faster rate.
Failure to punish and reprimand members who failed to pay up their subscriptions e.g. Uganda and Tanzania.
Economic nationalism and duplication of industries e.g. Uganda had to specialize in sugar industry, but Kenya also started, other countries like Uganda and Tanzania began producing tyres and set up plants meant for Kenya, lack of harmony in tax policies by 1974 etc.
Failure to control corruption in the set up corporations.
Member states failed to establish a uniform currency. There was nationalization of the currencies and it presented a problem to members in different countries to purchase products due to failure to accept money as legal tenders
Failure to control individualism and prestige of heads of state regarding appointments. Squabbles came up over appointments and expulsions of Kenyans from Tanzania. This made projects to break up e.g. in 1976, Airways in each country, all wanted to own a bank, university and railway than sharing.
Failed to stop misunderstandings over the transport sector. This made Tanzania in 1973 to manage its railway system. Kenya was blamed for developing road transport to weaken railway and Tanzania thought of the Tazara railway.
The East African Community was formed/established on 6th June 1967 after signing the Arusha treaty by the heads or presidents Jomo Kenyatta – Kenya, Julius Nyerere – Tanzania, and Milton Obote – Uganda.
It was under the guidance of Kjeld Phillips – a United Nations Professor and expert in international relations and the treaty came into effect (operation) on 1st December 1967.
The EAC aims to create a common market, facilitate the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital, and promote economic growth and development in the region. It strives to achieve these objectives through various mechanisms and programs, including:
Customs Union: The EAC member states have established a customs union, which allows for the free movement of goods within the region. This includes the elimination of tariff barriers and the harmonization of customs procedures.
Common Market: The EAC is working towards the establishment of a common market, which seeks to facilitate the free movement of services, labor, and capital within the region. This aims to promote investment, enhance economic opportunities, and create a conducive business environment.
Monetary Union: The EAC member states have plans to form a monetary union with a common currency. This would involve the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies to promote stability and facilitate economic integration.
Infrastructure Development: The EAC focuses on developing and improving regional infrastructure, including transportation networks, energy systems, and information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity. This aims to enhance regional connectivity, trade facilitation, and economic integration.
Sectoral Cooperation: The EAC promotes sectoral cooperation in areas such as agriculture, health, education, tourism, trade, and investment. Member states collaborate on policy development, knowledge sharing, and joint initiatives to address common challenges and harness shared opportunities.
Peace and Security: The EAC recognizes the importance of peace and security in the region. It works towards resolving conflicts, promoting stability, and enhancing regional cooperation on security matters. This includes joint efforts in peacekeeping, conflict resolution, and capacity building in security institutions.
Political Cooperation: The EAC encourages political dialogue, cooperation, and good governance among member states. It promotes democratic principles, respect for human rights, and the rule of law as fundamental values in the region.
The EAC Secretariat, based in Arusha, Tanzania, serves as the administrative and coordinating body of the organization. Decision-making is carried out through various organs, including the Summit of EAC Heads of State, the Council of Ministers, the Sectoral Councils, and the East African Legislative Assembly.
Through its regional integration efforts, the EAC aims to foster economic growth, enhance competitiveness, and improve the well-being of the people in East Africa. It seeks to create a united and prosperous East African community that promotes cooperation, peace, and shared development among its member states.
Weathering is the gradual disintegration of rocks into smaller particles due to action of temperature change, wind, and water
The following is the importance of weathering for the national economy
weathering leads to the disintegration of rocks that lead to the formation of building materials such as sand and gravel. these materials are used in the construction of houses, roads, and other infrastructure that stimulate trade, and thus national development
weathering leads to the formation of bauxite which is ore used in the extraction of aluminum. aluminum is used in the manufacturing of various machines and equipment and is exported to other countries hence helping the country to earn foreign exchange and thus leading to the growth of the national economy
weathering prepare the earth’s surface to the action of erosion which in turn help to expose important minerals such as coal and gold. these minerals can be extracted and sold to boost the national economy
weathering weakens and disintegrating parent rock contributing to the formation of soil. Soil is very important in agriculture that helps the country to grow crops and thus boosting countries economy and the standard of living of its people
Mining leads to the development of industries in the country for example steel cutting industry, coal has led to the development of heavy industries in china, USA and chemical industries.
Mining contributes to the earning of foreign currency in the country for example copper in Zambia, gold in South Africa, oil in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria and Middle East and Kuwait.
Mining industry provides employment opportunities to the people i.e. in Zambia copper mining employs a lot of people also many people are employed in the gold mining areas in south Africa [ in rand mining areas] iv) Mining stimulates the development of transport and communication of other economic systems in any country for example in South Africa mining led to the development of a dense network of roads and railway lines in the eastern part.
It encourages the development of other economic sectors since it generates capital for the country, for example mining in china has led to heavy investment in agricultural machinery.
Mining also leads to the improvement in the international relations through forming international organizations for the countries which deals with mining and exporting certain types of minerals for example Nigeria is the member of OPEC to the oil mining industry
Mining leads to the development of towns and large cities like the industrial conurbation of rand in South Africa. Conurbation is the large zone formed as a result of the combination of many towns into one zone.
Also mining leads to the diversification of the economy of the country so that the country cannot depend on one source of revenue or income
Mining has stimulated the construction activity especially in the supply of corrugated iron sheets for roofing the buildings etc
It also supplies some energy since some minerals are energy reserve like coal, petroleum, uranium and