8 Disadvantages of animal transport

Animal transport refers to the transportation of animals from one place to another for various purposes, such as farming, breeding, research, exhibition, or sale. Animal transport can be done by various means, including road, air, sea, and rail.

8 Disadvantages of animal transport


  • Animal transport is slow and tedious. The animals need to feed and drink along the way.
  • Pack animals may be attacked by wild animals, disease-causing insects such as tsetse-flies and disease.

  • Their movement is limited to the day only and cannot travel at night.
  • They can only carry small loads as compared to vehicles.
  • Some pack animals such as donkey are stubborn when tired and heavily loaded. The camel is only suited for the desert.
  • Pack animals use is limited to short distances as they fatigue when they travel for long.


8 Advantages of animal transport

  • Pack animals can be used in largely inaccessible areas. The Llama, for example, is used in mountainous areas with narrow and meandering paths and steep cliffs. The camel is well adapted for deserts.
  • Animals are cheap to maintain. They attract very little maintenance costs since only feeding costs are incurred.
8 Advantages of animal transport
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  • Pack animals are safe as accidents are rare probably because they do not speed..
  • Animals help to maintain the ecological balance since they do not interfere with the environment.
  • Pack animals are capable of sensing danger. For example, horses and dogs can sniff out an enemy from a distance. This enhances security as dangerous confrontations with an enemy can easily be avoided.


Role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa

  • Promotes industrial development. Means of transport influence the location of a given industry as they influence raw material availability, labour mobility and market accessibility for finished goods. Accessible areas are likely to attract more industrial establishments.
Role of transport and communication in the economic development of Africa
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  • Promotes local and international trade. Expanded transport and communication in Africa has opened new trade areas and markets and encouraged mass production. Trade within Africa and the rest of the world has been enhanced by improved transport.
  • Promotes tourism. Air transport is instrumental in transporting tourists to various game parks throughout Africa. Other tourists visit Africa via cruise ships.
  • Opens up remote areas for exploitation. Remote areas with vast forest and mineral resources have been opened up for exploitation through the establishment of transport and communication networks.
  • Enhances interaction among people. The development of transport and communication has increased human contact thus leading to exchange of technology and promoting understanding among people.
  • Creation of employment opportunities. Transport and communication are themselves individual industries that employ millions of people in sera routes, air routes, rail lines and roadways.
  • Development of urban centres. Some towns develop along major highways while others develop at road junctions.

  • Promotion of national image. In some countries, the government operates national airlines to promote the image of the countries e.g the Kenya Airways, Ethiopian Airlines and air Nigeria.



Air transport is a mode of transportation that involves the transportation of goods and passengers by the use of airplanes, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. Air transport is the most recent mode of transport. It is the gift of the 20th century to the world. 


High Costs

Air transport is a costly service. Its operational costs are too high. Middle class and poor people can not affect its cash.

More Risks

Air transport is prone to accidents. A small mistake can be very dangerous for passengers. Hijacking of planes is easily possible.

Huge Investments

For creating aviation facilities, huge investments are required. The cost of airplanes, construction, and maintenance of aerodromes and control mechanisms needs a capital expenditure.


Most of the air transport is uncertain because these are controlled by weather conditions. It is seriously affected by adverse weather conditions. Fog, snow, and heavy rain weather may cause the cancellation of some flights.

Small Carrying Capacity

The air crafts have a small carrying capacity and therefore these are not suitable for carrying bulky and cheaper goods. the load capacity cannot be increased as it is found in the case of rails.


water transport is the movement of people and goods by boats, ships, barge or sailboat across ocean, sea, lake, canal or river or through other modes of water transportation

advantages of water transport

it has Larger Capacity

It can carry much larger quantities of heavy and bulky goods such as coal, and, timber, etc. 

for example, Tanzania is able to import tonnes of oil and other products from the middle east, India, and china through water transport.

this would not be possible if they were done through another mode of transport such as roads, railway, and air transport

it offers Flexible Service

It provides a much more flexible service than railways and can be adjusted to individual requirements.  

it is more Safe

The risks of accidents and breakdowns, in this form of transport, are minimum as compared to any other form of transport.   

Low Cost

Rivers are a natural highway that does not require any cost of construction and maintenance.

Even the cost of construction and maintenance of canals is much less, or they are used, not only for transport purposes but also for irrigation, etc.

Moreover, the cost of the operation of inland water transport is very low.

Thus, it is the cheapest mode of transport for carrying goods from one place to another.

Less Maintenance Cost

Maintenance cost in rail and road transport is quite high but the maintenance cost of water transport is quite less.

Useful During Natural Calamities

During natural calamities like flood and rains, when rail and road transport is disrupted, relief operations can be operated through water transport.

boost trade between countries

water transport has enabled countries far apart to conduct trade.

for example, countries like Tanzania and Kenya have been able to transport their agricultural products to China and India while countries like China and India are able to export their manufactured electronics and motor vehicles to countries in Africa and America many kilometers away.

source of foreign currencies to the country

water transport has been a source of foreign exchange for countries which owns port located in strategic areas such as Rotterdam port, Singapore port and Mombasa port in east Africa.

the ports are used to imports goods to land located countries and these countries pay taxes and port charges to countries owning the port.

for example countries such as Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi are paying port charges to the Kenyan government by importing their goods through the Mombasa port.

Water transport is the cheapest and the oldest mode of transport. It operates on a natural track and hence does not require huge capital investment in the construction and maintenance of its track except in case of canals


Advantages and disadvantages of human transport

Human transport or human portage is the transport of people and/or goods using human muscle power, in the form of walking, and running from one place to another.

Advantages of human transport

  • It is readily available all the time.
  • It is cheap and affordable than any other form of transport.
  • It is Safe than other means of transport
  • It is not affected by congestion.
  • Human transport does not pollute the environment

Disadvantages of human transport 

  • It depends on the physical fitness of the person.
  • It is extremely slow and laborious.
  • This transport is only suitable for carrying light goods over short distances.


Advantages of containerization

Containerization sends cargo in a special metallic box of standard sizes as containers.

Shipping lines generally own containers.

Refrigerated containers are also available

It is mostly used in road and sea transport when exporting goods to other countries.

It can also be used when grouping goods of various kinds for transportation.

The following are advantages of containerization

  • Quick movement of cargo.
  • Faster turn-around of ships at ports.
  • Protection of cargo from being damaged.
  • Saving on packing cost.
  • Lesser chances of cargo being lost.

  • Creases speed of goods delivery
  • Quick transfer between different forms of transport
  • Reduces pilfering
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