By 1930 there was massive deforestation followed with poor farming methods in southern USA.
This resulted in severe gulley erosion and the soils eroded from the slopes were deposited into river Tennessee and other rivers like Ohio and Cumberland.
This swallowed the river for navigation and resulted in flooding. The floods damaged people`s crops and led to the loss of lives as far as the lower Mississippi.
This isolated the area from other parts of the USA making it underdeveloped.
In order to rehabilitate the area, the Tennessee valley authority was set up by then-president Roosevelt was to supervise and coordinate the projects that were set up in the area.
Tennessee river valley is found in the U.S.A and is a tributary of the Ohio river, the government of the U.S.A organized the development of the valley with the general aim of solving the economic difficulties of the people.
Benefits of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA):
- There has been increase in the water supply for irrigation, domestic use and industrial use.
- Navigation in the Tennessee river has improved such as the commercial freight ships operating in the river.
- Hydroelectric power was made available to many people.
- The floods have highly been controlled.
- The project has created job opportunities for many people.
- Increase on the size of the arable land due to soil control.
- Provision of hydroelectric power has led to the development of different manufacturing and heavy industries.
- There was stimulation of industrial development for example aluminum smelting at Chattanooga, paper milling and printing at Calhoun as well as textiles at Alcoa together with agro-processing industries and fish processing industries
- The success of the scheme made it a model scheme for other schemes in the country s well as other countries for example lessons learned at the Tennessee valley authority were instrumental in the California water transfer scheme.
- Government revenue through taxing the various industries and the workers in the different industries and other projects which were set up in the area. Such money is used to set up various social and economic infrastructure.
- There was increase in food production due to the increase in land under cultivation as well as theprovision of irrigation water
- The success of the project especially reforestation and afforestation programs helped to modify the climate of the area through the high evaporation, as well as evapotranspiration rates, experience in the area.
- There was development of tourism due to various attractions that were created as a result of the Tennessee valley authority for example the various dams and their architectural types, manmade lakes, the power houses and other attractions that came up as a result of the project
- Foreign exchange is acquired after the export of power to neighboring countries like Mexico as well as export of agricultural products from the numerous farms that were put up through te provision of irrigation water
- The project stimulated inland fishing activities from the numerous manmade lakes as well as rivers. This made the to possess a cheap source of animal proteins ad also employed a number of them through thefishing activities
- There was the development of towns and urban centers in the area that was formerly rural underdeveloped and some parts abandoned. Such towns started off as small trading centers that attracted various industries as well as modern infrastructures leading to the attraction of more people in the area. They are now bigger towns with modern infrastructures for example Knoxville, Colbert, Kingston, Chattanooga, Guntersville.