INFORMATION THAT CAN BE DERIVED FROM POPULATION PYRAMID

Population pyramid are used to show population structure for cities and countries




The following are Information that can be derived from a population pyramid:

  • The size of the population
  • The different age groups/ cohorts.
  • The proportion of males to females
  • The composition of sex.
  • The proportion of youthful/ working/ageing/dependency ratio.     

9 PROBLEMS RESULTING FROM HIGH POPULATION GROWTH RATE IN EAST AFRICAN COUNTRIES

The population growth rate in East Africa is generally high. This is due to a number of factors, including high fertility rates, young age structures, and declining mortality rates.

High fertility rates are a major driver of population growth in East Africa. The average woman in East Africa has 5.2 children, which is well above the replacement level of 2.1 children per woman.

Young age structures also contribute to population growth. In East Africa, the median age is 18.7 years, which means that there are a lot of young people who are entering their reproductive years.

Declining mortality rates are another factor contributing to population growth. In recent decades, there have been significant improvements in healthcare in East Africa, which has led to lower mortality rates. This means that more people are surviving to adulthood and having children.

Here are the population growth rates in East African countries:

CountryPopulation growth rate (2023)
Burundi3.2%
Rwanda2.8%
Tanzania2.5%
Uganda3.5%
Kenya1.5%
Ethiopia2.6%
South Sudan3.5%
Somalia2.0%
Djibouti2.8%
Niger3.9%

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The following are problems that result from the high population growth rate in the East African countries.

1. High Unemployment due to Population Growth

The East African countries grapple with a significant problem stemming from their high population growth rate, which often outpaces the rate at which new job opportunities are generated. This situation leads to a surplus of individuals seeking employment, resulting in high levels of unemployment. The labor market becomes oversaturated, creating intense competition for limited positions. As a consequence, many young and able individuals find themselves without gainful employment or steady income sources. This rampant unemployment not only hampers the socio-economic progress of the region but can also fuel social unrest and dissatisfaction among the population.

2. Congestion in Social Amenities

The rapid growth in population exerts immense pressure on social amenities like schools, hospitals, and housing. The demand for education and healthcare services surges, often exceeding the capacity of existing institutions. Schools become overcrowded, leading to compromised educational quality and limited individual attention for students. Hospitals struggle to provide adequate medical care due to increased patient volumes. Additionally, the demand for housing outstrips supply, resulting in substandard living conditions, informal settlements, and increased urban sprawl. Congestion in these vital sectors hampers the overall well-being of the population and strains the infrastructure.

3. High Dependency Ratio and Slow Economic Development

East African countries with a disproportionately youthful population face the challenge of a high dependency ratio. With a large number of young people who are not yet part of the workforce, the burden on the working-age population to support the dependent population becomes substantial. This situation can hinder economic development as a significant portion of resources must be directed toward supporting non-working individuals instead of being invested in productive activities. The potential demographic dividend that could result from a productive workforce is undermined when a high dependency ratio slows down economic progress.

4. Food Shortages due to High Population Growth

The East African countries’ high population growth contributes to increased demand for food, which often surpasses agricultural production capacity. This can lead to food shortages, inadequate nutrition, and potential famine situations. Agricultural systems struggle to keep up with the escalating demand, sometimes resulting in overexploitation of natural resources, deforestation, and unsustainable farming practices. Inadequate access to sufficient and nutritious food can have severe health and developmental consequences for the population, particularly for vulnerable groups like children and pregnant women.

5. High Crime Rate and Poverty/Unemployment

The convergence of poverty, unemployment, and rapid population growth can foster an environment conducive to crime. A large number of people, particularly the unemployed youth, may find themselves without legitimate means of income. This situation creates a breeding ground for criminal activities, including theft, burglary, and even more serious offenses. The lack of economic opportunities can drive individuals to engage in illegal activities as a means of survival or material gain. High crime rates not only compromise personal safety but also deter potential investors and disrupt social stability.




6. Land Fragmentation due to Agricultural Demand

The increased demand for food resulting from high population growth often leads to intensified agricultural activities. As the population expands, more land is needed for cultivation to meet the rising food requirements. This demand can cause a phenomenon known as land fragmentation, where agricultural land is divided into smaller and smaller plots due to inheritance patterns and subdivision. This land division can reduce the efficiency of farming operations, limit economies of scale, and ultimately hinder agricultural productivity. As a result, the ability to sustainably provide food for the growing population becomes increasingly challenging, exacerbating food security concerns.

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12 REASONS THAT MADE THE TANZANIAN GOVERNMENT ADOPT THE NEW 2006 POPULATION POLICY




challenges which have necessitated review of the 1992 policy  and adoption of new 2006 population policy include the following.

Need for relevant and affordable quality education and training at all levels: The Tanzanian government faces a number of challenges in providing relevant and affordable quality education and training at all levels. These challenges include:

Lack of resources: The Tanzanian government does not have enough resources to provide quality education and training to everyone.

Inadequate infrastructure: Many schools and training centers in Tanzania do not have the necessary infrastructure, such as classrooms, teachers, and textbooks.

Lack of qualified teachers: There is a shortage of qualified teachers in Tanzania, especially in rural areas.

Cultural barriers: Some people in Tanzania believe that girls do not need to be educated, and that boys should be educated only up to a certain level.

High prevalence of STIs, HIV and AIDS: The high prevalence of STIs, HIV and AIDS in Tanzania is a major constraint to implementing the 1992 Population Policy. This is because STIs and HIV can lead to infertility, which can make it difficult for couples to plan their families. Additionally, HIV can lead to death, which can leave children without parents.

High levels of adolescent pregnancies and early child bearing: High levels of adolescent pregnancies and early child bearing are another major constraint to implementing the 1992 Population Policy. This is because adolescent mothers are more likely to experience complications during pregnancy and childbirth, and their children are more likely to be malnourished and have poor educational outcomes.

Frequent pregnancies and deliveries: Frequent pregnancies and deliveries can also be a constraint to implementing the 1992 Population Policy. This is because women who have frequent pregnancies and deliveries are more likely to experience health problems, such as anemia and postpartum depression. Additionally, their children are more likely to be malnourished and have poor educational outcomes.




challenges which have necessitated review of the 1992 policy  and adoption of new 2006 population policy include the following.

Increasing unemployment due to poor economic performance parallel with rapid labor force growth: Increasing unemployment due to poor economic performance parallel with rapid labor force growth is another constraint to implementing the 1992 Population Policy. This is because when people are unemployed, they are less likely to be able to afford to have children. Additionally, unemployment can lead to stress and frustration, which can make it difficult for couples to plan their families.

Increased forms and levels of gender-based violence, traditional harmful practices including FGM, sexual abuse, neglect and abandonment of children: Increased forms and levels of gender-based violence, traditional harmful practices including FGM, sexual abuse, neglect and abandonment of children are also constraints to implementing the 1992 Population Policy. This is because these practices can lead to unwanted pregnancies and early child bearing, and they can also make it difficult for women to control their own fertility.

  • Persistently high maternal, infant and child mortality: Maternal mortality is the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration or site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes. Infant mortality is the death of a child under the age of one year. Child mortality is the death of a child under the age of five years.

High maternal, infant, and child mortality are a major constraint to the implementation of the 1992 Population Policy because they contribute to high fertility rates. When women die in childbirth, their children are more likely to die as well. This is because they are more likely to be born preterm or with low birth weight, and they are less likely to receive proper care.

High infant and child mortality also discourage couples from using family planning methods. Couples who have lost children are more likely to want to have more children in order to replace them.

The Tanzanian government has taken a number of steps to address maternal, infant, and child mortality, including:

* Expanding access to maternal health care services, such as prenatal care and delivery services.
* Providing free or low-cost essential medicines for pregnant women and children.
* Training traditional birth attendants to provide basic emergency obstetric care.
* Educating the public about the importance of family planning and child health.

However, more needs to be done to reduce maternal, infant, and child mortality in Tanzania.

  • Rapid and unplanned urban growth: Rapid and unplanned urban growth is another constraint to the implementation of the 1992 Population Policy. This is because it puts a strain on the availability of resources, such as housing, water, and sanitation. It also leads to increased crime and social problems.

The Tanzanian government has taken a number of steps to address rapid and unplanned urban growth, including:

* Developing master plans for major cities.
* Investing in infrastructure, such as roads, water, and sanitation.
* Promoting the development of small towns and rural areas.
* Educating the public about the importance of family planning.

However, more needs to be done to manage rapid and unplanned urban growth in Tanzania.

  • Low status accorded to women in society: Low status accorded to women in society is another constraint to the implementation of the 1992 Population Policy. This is because it limits women’s access to education, employment, and decision-making power. It also makes them more vulnerable to violence and abuse.

The Tanzanian government has taken a number of steps to address the low status of women in society, including:

* Enacting laws that promote gender equality.
* Investing in education and training for women.
* Promoting women’s participation in decision-making.
* Raising awareness about the importance of gender equality.

However, more needs to be done to improve the status of women in Tanzania.

  • Inadequate programmes to address specific reproductive health needs of particular population groups: Inadequate programmes to address specific reproductive health needs of particular population groups is another constraint to the implementation of the 1992 Population Policy. This is because different population groups have different reproductive health needs. For example, adolescents have different needs than older women.

The Tanzanian government has taken a number of steps to address the needs of specific population groups, such as:

* Developing programmes to provide family planning services to adolescents.
* Providing HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services to women.
* Investing in maternal health care services for rural women.

However, more needs to be done to address the specific reproductive health needs of all population groups in Tanzania.

  • Increased incidence of drug and substance abuse: Increased incidence of drug and substance abuse is another constraint to the implementation of the 1992 Population Policy. This is because drug and substance abuse can lead to unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and other health problems.




The Tanzanian government has taken a number of steps to address the problem of drug and substance abuse, such as:

* Enacting laws that prohibit drug and substance abuse.
* Providing treatment and rehabilitation services for drug and substance abusers.
* Educating the public about the dangers of drug and substance abuse.

10 CONSTRAINTS ENCOUNTERED BY THE TANZANIAN GOVERNMENT IN IMPLEMENTING THE 1992 POPULATION POLICY




The constraints and limitations that were encountered during the implementation of the 1992 National Population Policy and the implicit population policies include the following.

  • Inadequate trained human resources at all levels of implementation: The 1992 Population Policy was ambitious in its goals, but it did not adequately address the need for trained human resources to implement it. As a result, there was a shortage of trained personnel at all levels of implementation, from policy makers to service providers. This made it difficult to effectively implement the policy and achieve its goals.
  • Inadequate financial and material resources: The 1992 Population Policy also suffered from inadequate financial and material resources. The government did not allocate enough funding to the policy, and there was a shortage of essential materials, such as contraceptives and medical supplies. This made it difficult to provide quality family planning services and to reach the target population.
  • Inadequate availability of age and gender disaggregated population related data: The 1992 Population Policy was based on the assumption that the government had adequate data on the population. However, this was not the case. The government did not have reliable data on the age and gender structure of the population, which made it difficult to target interventions and to evaluate the impact of the policy.
  • Non-establishment of planned policy coordination and implementation arrangements: The 1992 Population Policy did not establish clear mechanisms for coordinating and implementing the policy. This led to confusion and duplication of efforts, and it made it difficult to achieve the policy’s goals.
  • Policies mainly addressed family planning and child spacing activities; this influenced limited participation of players in other reproductive health issues: The 1992 Population Policy focused primarily on family planning and child spacing activities. This limited the participation of other players in reproductive health issues, such as HIV/AIDS prevention and maternal health care.
  • Placing more emphasis on meeting demographic targets rather than the needs of individuals (males and females): The 1992 Population Policy placed more emphasis on meeting demographic targets than on the needs of individuals. This led to some people feeling that they were being coerced into using family planning services, and it made it difficult to achieve the policy’s goals in a sustainable way.




  • Inadequate recognition of the relationship between poverty, population, environment, gender and development: The Tanzanian government has not fully acknowledged the interlinkages between poverty, population, environment, gender, and development. This has made it difficult to develop effective policies and programs to address these issues. For example, the government has not adequately addressed the issue of environmental degradation, which is a major cause of poverty.
  • Inadequate advocacy to guarantee the required support for population and development issues: The Tanzanian government has not done enough to advocate for population and development issues. This has made it difficult to raise awareness of these issues and to secure the necessary resources to address them. For example, the government has not lobbied for increased funding for family planning programs.
  • Insufficient capacity and resources of NGOs engaged in population related activities: NGOs play a vital role in implementing population and development programs. However, many NGOs in Tanzania lack the capacity and resources to effectively carry out these programs. This is due to a number of factors, including lack of funding, lack of trained staff, and lack of access to essential supplies.
  • Lack of political will: There is a lack of political will to address population and development issues in Tanzania. This is due to a number of factors, including the fact that these issues are often seen as being less important than other issues, such as economic development.

19 ACHIEVEMENTS OF TANZANIAN POPULATION POLICY




Population policy is the document prepared by the government to modify the way the population is changing either by promoting large families or immigration to increase its size or by encouraging birth control to reduce it.

19 ACHIEVEMENTS OF TANZANIAN POPULATION POLICY

the population policy can be implicit or explicit.




Explicit population policy set measures of how to directly control population for example by setting the number of children each family should have.

Implicit population policy on the other hand control population and its variables indirectly.

The achievements of both past implicit and explicit Tanzanian population policies include the following.




Increased Awareness of Population Issues:

Tanzania’s Population Policy has led to a notable achievement in raising awareness about population-related matters. The policy has effectively disseminated information regarding population dynamics, growth, and associated challenges throughout the country. As a result, citizens have become more conscious of the impact of population growth on various aspects of society, including healthcare, education, employment, and resource utilization. This heightened awareness has contributed to informed decision-making at both individual and community levels.

Fertility, Infant, and Child Mortality Decline:

The implementation of Tanzania’s Population Policy has contributed to a significant decline in fertility rates, infant mortality, and child mortality. Through comprehensive family planning programs and improved access to reproductive health services, couples have been empowered to make informed choices about family size. Consequently, birth rates have decreased, leading to a reduction in infant and child mortality rates. The policy’s emphasis on maternal and child health has also contributed to an increase in the average life expectancy at birth, reflecting improved healthcare and overall well-being.

Awareness of HIV and AIDS:

Tanzania’s Population Policy has played a pivotal role in raising awareness about HIV and AIDS. With efforts focused on education and prevention, the policy has successfully reached over 95 percent of men and women aged 15 and above. This achievement is critical in combating the spread of the disease and promoting safe practices. By promoting knowledge about HIV transmission, prevention methods, and access to testing and treatment, the policy has contributed to the reduction of new infections and improved quality of life for those affected.

Understanding Links between Population, Resources, and Environment:

One of the accomplishments of Tanzania’s Population Policy is the enhanced understanding of the intricate connections between population growth, resource availability, environmental sustainability, and overall development. This broader perspective has filtered down to all levels of society, from local communities to policymakers. This awareness has prompted more informed decision-making in areas such as natural resource management, urban planning, and sustainable development strategies. The policy’s integrated approach has fostered a more holistic perspective on development that takes into account the long-term implications of population dynamics.

Expansion of Population Studies in Higher Learning Institutions:

Tanzania’s Population Policy has facilitated the expansion and incorporation of population studies within higher education institutions across the country. By recognizing the importance of studying population dynamics, the policy has encouraged the inclusion of related curricula in universities and colleges. This expansion has resulted in a growing pool of experts equipped to address population-related challenges, conduct research, and contribute to evidence-based policy formulation and implementation.

Increased NGO and FBO Involvement in Population Activities:

Tanzania’s Population Policy has led to a notable increase in the number and capacity of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Faith-Based Organizations (FBOs) engaged in population-related activities. These organizations are now actively involved in diverse areas such as advocacy, social mobilization, service delivery, and capacity building. Their efforts have extended the reach of population-related initiatives and programs, ensuring that a wider segment of the population benefits from services, information, and support. This expansion of civil society involvement has strengthened the collaborative approach towards achieving the policy’s objectives.




Modern Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Increase (1996-2004)

The Tanzanian Population Policy has achieved a significant increase in the modern contraceptive prevalence rate. This rate rose from approximately 18.4 percent in 1996 to 26 percent in 2004, as evidenced by the Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). This achievement can be attributed to heightened awareness and knowledge among women of reproductive age. Increased education and awareness campaigns have empowered women to make informed decisions about family planning. The policy’s focus on improving reproductive health services and accessibility to modern contraceptives has contributed to this positive shift, enabling women to take greater control of their reproductive choices and overall well-being.

Increased Lawmaker Involvement and Support

The Tanzanian Population Policy has successfully fostered increased involvement and support from policymakers regarding population-related issues. The establishment and effective operations of key associations, such as the Tanzania Parliamentary Association on Population and Development (TPAPD), Parliamentarians’ Group on HIV and AIDS, and the African Women Ministers and Parliamentarians (Tanzania Chapter), have played a pivotal role. These platforms provide a space for policymakers to collaborate, discuss, and advocate for policies that address population concerns, HIV/AIDS, and gender-related issues. This achievement underscores the policy’s ability to engage policymakers in meaningful dialogues and collaborations, ensuring that population-related matters remain a priority on the legislative agenda.

Integration of Family Life Education (FLE) in Education

The Tanzanian Population Policy has facilitated the successful integration of Family Life Education (FLE) into secondary school and Teacher Training College curricula. This integration recognizes the importance of comprehensive education on reproductive health, family dynamics, and interpersonal relationships. By incorporating FLE, the policy ensures that students receive age-appropriate information, equipping them with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual and reproductive health. This achievement contributes to reducing misinformation, promoting healthy relationships, and empowering young people to navigate the complexities of their changing bodies and emotions.

Integration of HIV and AIDS Education in Education

The Tanzanian Population Policy has been instrumental in integrating HIV and AIDS education into primary and secondary school as well as Teacher Training College curricula. Recognizing the urgency of addressing the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the policy ensures that young learners are equipped with accurate information about prevention, transmission, and stigma reduction. By integrating HIV and AIDS education, the policy fosters a generation that is well-informed and capable of taking proactive measures to protect themselves and promote community health. This achievement reflects the policy’s commitment to comprehensive education and its role in combating a critical public health challenge.

Establishment of Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and National Policy Adoption

The Tanzanian Population Policy has contributed to the establishment of the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) and the adoption of a National Policy on HIV and AIDS. TACAIDS serves as a strategic body responsible for coordinating and overseeing the national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The adoption of the National Policy on HIV and AIDS demonstrates the policy’s commitment to addressing this pressing issue comprehensively. This achievement highlights the policy’s role in facilitating the creation of dedicated institutions and policies that guide the nation’s efforts in combatting HIV/AIDS, thereby ensuring a coordinated and effective response.

National Multi-sectoral Strategic Framework and Health Sector Strategy (2003-2007)

The Tanzanian Population Policy has been instrumental in formulating and implementing a National Multi-sectoral Strategic Framework and the Health Sector Strategy for HIV and AIDS (2003-2007). This achievement demonstrates the policy’s commitment to comprehensive and coordinated action against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The National Multi-sectoral Strategic Framework outlines a strategic approach involving multiple sectors and stakeholders, ensuring a holistic response to HIV/AIDS. The Health Sector Strategy specifically focuses on integrating HIV/AIDS services within the health sector, prioritizing prevention, treatment, care, and support. These frameworks underscore the policy’s role in guiding the nation’s efforts, fostering collaboration, and prioritizing the health and well-being of the population.

Formulation of National Policy Guidelines for Reproductive and Child Health Services

The Tanzanian Population Policy has successfully formulated National Policy Guidelines for Reproductive and Child Health Services. This achievement reflects the policy’s commitment to enhancing maternal and child health outcomes. These guidelines provide a comprehensive framework for delivering essential health services to women and children, emphasizing reproductive health, antenatal care, safe delivery, postnatal care, and child health services. By establishing clear guidelines, the policy promotes consistent and quality care, improving the health and well-being of mothers and children across Tanzania. This achievement highlights the policy’s role in shaping the healthcare landscape and ensuring equitable access to vital health services.




Accelerated Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and Harmful Traditional Practices

The Tanzanian Population Policy’s National Plan of Action 2001-2025 played a pivotal role in accelerating the elimination of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and other harmful traditional practices. By raising awareness, promoting education, and fostering community engagement, the policy contributed to a significant reduction in the prevalence of FGM. This achievement not only safeguarded the physical and psychological well-being of women and girls but also underscored Tanzania’s commitment to gender equality and human rights.

Increased Allocation of Resources for Research, Training, and Data Collection

The Tanzanian Population Policy led to a notable increase in the allocation of resources dedicated to research, training, and data collection related to population dynamics, reproductive health, and gender issues. This investment enabled the government and relevant stakeholders to gather accurate and comprehensive information, which in turn informed evidence-based policy decisions. The enhanced availability of data facilitated better planning, targeted interventions, and the monitoring of progress towards achieving population-related goals.

Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health (ASRH) Strategy

A significant achievement of the Tanzanian Population Policy was the formulation and implementation of the Adolescent Sexual Reproductive Health (ASRH) Strategy. This strategy recognized the unique challenges faced by adolescents and young people in accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services. By promoting age-appropriate education, accessible healthcare, and the empowerment of young individuals, the ASRH Strategy contributed to reducing teenage pregnancies, improving reproductive health outcomes, and fostering the overall well-being of Tanzanian youth.

Mobilization of Domestic and Foreign Resources for Population Programs

The Tanzanian Population Policy played a pivotal role in mobilizing both domestic and foreign resources to support the implementation of various population programs. This achievement facilitated the expansion of initiatives focused on family planning, maternal health, and gender equality. The policy’s emphasis on partnership and resource mobilization enabled the government to leverage external funding and expertise while ensuring the sustainability of population-related interventions.

Formulation of Gender and Women Development Policy

Another notable accomplishment of the Tanzanian Population Policy was the formulation of the Gender and Women Development Policy. This policy addressed the multifaceted challenges faced by women and girls, aiming to eliminate gender-based discrimination and promote women’s empowerment. By integrating gender considerations into all aspects of development planning, the policy laid the foundation for more equitable and inclusive socio-economic progress in Tanzania.




Improved Framework for and Intensified Action on Gender Mainstreaming

The Tanzanian Population Policy led to an improved framework for gender mainstreaming, ensuring that gender perspectives were systematically integrated into all policies, programs, and projects. This achievement facilitated a comprehensive approach to gender equality, creating an enabling environment for women’s participation in decision-making, access to education and healthcare, and economic opportunities. The policy’s emphasis on gender mainstreaming underscored Tanzania’s commitment to realizing the full potential of all its citizens, regardless of gender.

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TYPES OF POPULATION POLICY




Population policy refers to the statement of law or regulations enacted to some demographic goals.

It is a deliberate effort by the government to influence demographic factors like fertility, mortality, and migration.

Thus the ultimate goal of the population policy is to influence population size, composition, distribution, and growth.




The policy also tends to take into consideration the relationship between population and development as well as the impact on environmental conditions.   POPULATION POLICY CAN BE EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT

EXPLICIT POPULATION POLICY

refer to the document or clear statement issued by the government department and its commission which is intended to control population growth and raise the standard of life of the people in the country.

Explicit policies can also stem from the law, policy declaration by a party, or directive issued by the President of the country.




Explicit laws are well stipulated and strictly followed or reinforced.

Such policies prevailed in China where the limit in the number of children was set and incentives were given to all those who could follow while penalties were given to those who did not follow.

Other countries with an explicit policy are Sweden and England.




Hence the explicit policy is the elaborate statement that spells out the rationale objective, goals, targets policy program, and implementation.  

IMPLICIT POLICIES

refer to particular law, regulation, or statement, which may have direct or indirect effect on population growth.




The implicit policy is not as elaborate as explicit since it is somehow unclear and cannot be easily understood leading to failure in terms of implementation.

Population policies, whether explicit or implicit, have the ultimate aim of influencing a country’s population size, composition, distribution and growth.  

JUSTIFICATION OF THE POPULATION POLICY

This policy takes cognizance of the achievement, constraint and limitation of implementing post population policies as well as new development and continuing challenges  

ACHIEVEMENTS

The achievement of both implicit and explicit population policies include the followings: –




Considerable awareness of population issues particularly those related to reproductive health and child survival by the masses of the people, for example, fertility, infant and child mortality has decline over time.

– Adoption of an explicit population policy in 1992, which recognized the links and interrelationship between population, resources, the environment and development

– Expansion and /or introduction of population studies in institutions of higher learning in the country




– Increased number and capacity of NGOs engaged in population related activities including advocacy and social mobilization, service delivery and capacity building

– High knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among both men and women and male involvement in family planning have increased contraceptive prevalence from about 10 in the 1980s to 16 in 1996.  

What is the importance of population policy in Tanzania?

To address the issue of rapid population growth: Tanzania has one of the highest population growth rates in the world, with an annual growth rate of 3.0%. This rapid population growth is putting a strain on the country’s resources, such as land, water, and food. A population policy can help to slow down population growth and to ensure that the country’s resources are used more efficiently.

To improve the quality of life of the people: A population policy can also help to improve the quality of life of the people in Tanzania. By slowing down population growth, the government can invest more resources in education, healthcare, and other social services. This can help to improve the health and well-being of the people and to reduce poverty.

To promote sustainable development: A population policy can also help to promote sustainable development in Tanzania. By slowing down population growth, the government can help to reduce the pressure on the environment and to conserve natural resources. This can help to ensure that Tanzania’s development is sustainable for future generations.

To empower women: A population policy can also help to empower women in Tanzania. By providing women with access to education and healthcare, the government can help to reduce gender inequality and to give women more control over their lives. This can lead to lower fertility rates and to a more equitable society.

To improve the status of children: A population policy can also help to improve the status of children in Tanzania. By investing in education and healthcare, the government can help to ensure that all children have the opportunity to reach their full potential. This can lead to a more prosperous and stable society.

The Tanzanian government has developed a number of population policies over the years. The current population policy, which was adopted in 2016, aims to slow down population growth to 2.5% by 2030. The policy also aims to improve the quality of life of the people and to promote sustainable development.

The success of the Tanzanian population policy will depend on a number of factors, including the government’s commitment to the policy, the availability of resources, and the cooperation of the people. However, if the policy is successful, it can have a significant impact on the lives of the people of Tanzania and on the future of the country.

What are the main objectives of population policy?

The main objectives of population policy can vary from country to country, but they generally include the following:

  • To slow down population growth: This is often the primary objective of population policy, as rapid population growth can put a strain on a country’s resources and development.
  • To improve the quality of life of the people: This can be done by investing in education, healthcare, and other social services.
  • To promote sustainable development: This can be done by reducing the pressure on the environment and conserving natural resources.
  • To empower women: This can be done by providing women with access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities.
  • To improve the status of children: This can be done by investing in education, healthcare, and protection from exploitation.
  • To address the issue of aging population: This can be done by promoting healthy living and providing social security for the elderly.

The specific objectives of population policy will be determined by the needs and priorities of each country. However, all population policies should be based on the principles of human rights, gender equality, and social justice.

Here are some of the specific strategies that can be used to achieve the objectives of population policy:

  • Providing access to family planning services: This is one of the most effective ways to slow down population growth.
  • Investing in education and healthcare: This can improve the health and well-being of the people, which can lead to lower fertility rates.
  • Promoting gender equality: This can give women more control over their lives and their bodies, which can also lead to lower fertility rates.
  • Encouraging sustainable development: This can reduce the pressure on the environment and make it easier to meet the needs of the growing population.
  • Protecting the rights of women and children: This is essential for ensuring that everyone has the opportunity to reach their full potential.

The success of population policy will depend on a number of factors, including the government’s commitment to the policy, the availability of resources, and the cooperation of the people. However, if the policy is successful, it can have a significant impact on the lives of the people and on the future of the country.

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