The contributions of Tippu Tip to the development of long-distance trade in East Africa

Tippu Tip was born in 1830 in Zanzibar, the name Tippu Tip was given to him as a nickname due to the sound made by his gun. His real name was Mohammed Bin Hamid born to a father a trader and a farmer in Tabora.

He separated from his father and he went and his trading empire at Manyema in Congo. He played the following roles in the development of long distance trade.

  • He extended the long distance trade in Congo where he traded with some tribes in East Congo.
  • He made commercial agreements with Mirambo and Urambo and Namaza of Ujiji so that they allow his caravans without interference.
  • He supplied the coastal Arabs with copper and gold from eastern Congo.
  • He contributed to trade routes that went to eastern Congo and taxed the Arab traders who used these routes like he obtained a lot of wealth from the Arab traders.

  • He traded with the Belgians in Congo and supplied them with honey, slaves, gold and copper and in return got money, clothes, guns etc. from them.
  • He minimized the conflicts between Arabs and Europeans in eastern Congo by representing their interests in Congo as a ruler of the Yao people.
  • Before moving to Congo, Tipu Tipu assisted his father to organize and conduct trade at Tabora and helped him to put up plantations of rice.
  • He employed Congolese to hunt for elephants (ivory) especially when the demand increased in Asia, which he exported to the coast.
  • He built a very big commercial empire at Eastern Congo which attracted more Swahili traders from Tabora to the eastern coast.

  • He lost his trade in slaves when slave trade was abolished. In 1890, he returned to Zanzibar and never returned to Congo until he died in 1905.


Why did Seyid Said transfer his capital (operational base) from Muscat to Zanzibar in 1840?

  • Zanzibar supported his effort to capture Mombasa.
  • Zanzibar was good and pleasant, with a good climate, unlike Muscat, which was hot and dry.

  • Zanzibar had good (deep-water) harbors in which ships could anchor. Her water was also clean.
  • He wanted to control Indian Ocean trade and the towns of the east African coast.
  • Zanzibar‟s position was convenient for trade with the mainland and with Mombasa.
  • Zanzibar’s good climate and fertile soil favored the cultivation of cloves, which were used as spices.
  • Being an island, Zanzibar assured the Oman Arabs of protection


the communities in East Africa which participated in the long distance trade in the 19th century. .

  • The Akamba,
  • Mijikenda,
  • Nyamwezi,
  • Khartoumers,
  • Waswahili,
  • Yao,
  • Arabs
  • Baganda.

What led to the decline of Akamba dominance in Long Distance trade?

  • Loss of trading partners such as the Aembu and the Agikuyu due to Oromo raids.
  • British colonization, which undermined the trade.
  • Abolition of the slave trade, due to which the main item of exchange (slaves) was lost.

  • Attacks by the Maasai and Oromo on the trade routes.
  • Competition from Arab and Swahili traders, who penetrated the interior to get goods from the sources.

Reasons why devolved governments were established in Kenya

The following are reasons why devolved governments were established in Kenya.

  • They were established as a means of promoting democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  • To Foster national unity by recognizing diversity.

  • To give powers of self-governance to the people and enhance the participation of the people in the exercise of the powers of the State and in making decisions affecting them.
  • To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development.
  • To protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized communities.
  • To promote social and economic development and the provision of services throughout Kenya.
  • To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya.

  • To facilitate the decentralization of State organs, their functions and services, from the capital of Kenya;
  • To enhance checks, balances and the separation of powers.



The Maji-Maji rebellion was a mass uprising against German rule in Southern Tanganyika.

The term Maji-Maji is derived from the Swahili word: Maji, which means Water. It stemmed from the magic water (millet and maize flour mixed in water drawn from river Rufiji), which Kinjekitile Ngwale of Ngaramba: a priest who established himself near river Rufiji and claimed protection by a spirit called Hongo, sprinkled the resisters with, to protect them from German bullets.

causes of maji maji war in tanganyika

Communities that were involved in the Maji-Maji uprising.

  • The Zaramo,
  • The Matumbi,
  • The Bena,
  • The Ngindo,
  • The Pogoro,
  • The Bunga,
  • The Ngoni,
  • The Luguru,
  • The Wamwera,
  • The Ndendeule.

What were the factors or causes of the Maji-Maji rebellion?

Oppression, False Accusations, and Torture

The causes of the Maji Maji War were deeply rooted in the oppressive actions of German company officials towards the African population. The Europeans employed a range of oppressive tactics that ignited anger and resistance among the locals. One of the most egregious examples was the punishment inflicted on Africans for drinking traditional liquor. The cultural significance of such drinks was completely disregarded by the Germans, who imposed severe caning as punishment. This disproportionate and arbitrary response to a cultural practice that held meaning for the Africans deeply undermined their sense of autonomy and respect.

Disregard for Local Taboos and Moral Offenses

The Germans further aggravated tensions by openly defying and breaking local taboos regarding rape, fornication, and adultery. These taboos held immense significance within the local communities, with violations often punishable by death. The Europeans, along with their house-boys, exhibited a blatant disregard for these norms, leading to widespread resentment and anger among the African populace. The violation of such deeply ingrained cultural boundaries not only undermined traditional values but also contributed to a sense of humiliation and indignation.

Discrediting Traditional Beliefs and Practices

The intrusion of Christian missionaries and their efforts to discredit and profane traditional African beliefs and practices added to the causes of the conflict. As the missionaries sought to impose Christianity on the locals, they often ridiculed and dismissed the indigenous spiritual and sacred practices. This not only disrupted the cultural fabric but also generated a sense of deep mistrust and resentment. The forced imposition of foreign beliefs and the undermining of indigenous traditions led to a clash of values and contributed to the growing tension.

Land Alienation and Economic Exploitation

The German settlers’ expansionist approach led to the massive appropriation of land in areas like Usambara, Meru, and Kilimanjaro. The land-grabbing, coupled with the settlers’ pursuit of farming, resulted in the displacement of Africans from their ancestral lands. The completion of railway lines also contributed to this phenomenon. The loss of land, a vital resource for sustenance and identity, deeply impacted the African communities and fueled a sense of injustice and dispossession.

Kinjekitile’s Promises and Economic Disruption

The charismatic figure of Kinjekitile played a pivotal role in uniting the Africans against the Germans. His promise of immunity to bullets created a powerful rallying point for resistance. This promise, coupled with the prevailing economic disruptions caused by German communal cotton growing schemes, fostered a climate of discontent. The Africans were coerced into working on these schemes, neglecting their own farms and leading to a decline in food security. The imposed economic hardships were further exacerbated by the fact that the earnings were redirected to the Germans as taxes, exacerbating the grievances of the local population.

Heavy Taxes and Land Use Disputes

One of the major grievances that led to the war was the heavy taxes imposed by the German East Africa Company. The imposition of these taxes was aimed at raising revenue for the administration of the German protectorate. However, the Matumbi people of Northwest Kilwa felt that the Germans should have compensated them for using their land. They viewed the taxes as unjust and a form of exploitation, as their land was being utilized without adequate compensation.

Brutality of Arab Swahili Enforcers

The Arab Swahilis employed by the German East Africa Company to collect Hut taxes and recruit laborers were notorious for their brutality. This mistreatment, including violence and humiliation, was inflicted on the local population during tax collection and forced labor recruitment. The use of such harsh methods created a sense of fear, anger, and resentment among the African communities, contributing to their desire for resistance.

Forced Labor and Mistreatment

The Africans were subjected to forced labor on various projects, such as cotton fields, roads, and settlers’ farms. During their labor, they were subjected to whippings and humiliations. This mistreatment extended to their relatives who witnessed the atrocities. Even lenient local leaders (Akidas or Jumbes) were punished if they did not comply with German demands. This widespread mistreatment further fueled anger and a sense of injustice.

Cotton Growing and Crop Failure

Germans forced locals, especially those in dry southern areas unsuitable for agriculture, to engage in cotton growing. However, this practice led to heavy losses due to crop failure, as cotton was not well-suited to these areas. The failure of crops caused economic hardship and deep disappointment among the affected communities, as their livelihoods were negatively impacted.

Desire for Independence

The locals’ desire to safeguard their independence and autonomy was a significant factor. German colonization threatened their traditional ways of life and systems of governance. The imposition of taxes, labor requirements, and land use disputes eroded their self-determination. This desire for independence became a driving force behind their resistance efforts.

Communal Cotton Growing and Food Security

The Germans introduced communal cotton growing schemes that required Africans to work on these projects, diverting their labor away from their own farms. This adversely affected African food security and self-sufficiency. Additionally, the money earned by Africans from their labor often had to be used to pay taxes to the Germans, further exacerbating their economic struggles.



.MUSEUMS: These are places or buildings where information and objects are preserved it involves all terms, which show culture,political-economic and technological development from the past to the present.

Objects can be early coins, clothes, mineral cowries, or religious and ceremonial symbols. Museums can be national, Regional, District and village.e.g. National Museums in DaresSalaam, Bagamoyo, Butiama, Kalenga Iringa.


Preserve historical documents and objects: Museums are responsible for preserving historical documents and objects for future generations. This includes artifacts from different cultures and time periods, as well as documents that record important events in history. Museums use a variety of techniques to preserve these items, such as storage in controlled environments, conservation, and restoration.

Shows concrete remains of objects: Museums also show concrete remains of objects. This includes fossils, archaeological finds, and other objects that provide evidence of the past. These objects can help us learn about the history of our planet, the evolution of life, and the cultures of different peoples.

It is a place for tourist and study tours: Museums are also a popular destination for tourists and study tours. People come to museums to learn about history, art, and culture. Museums offer a variety of educational programs and activities, such as lectures, workshops, and guided tours.

It is the center of cultural and national identity: Museums can also be a center of cultural and national identity. They can help us to understand our own culture and the cultures of other people. Museums can also promote pride in our heritage and traditions.


It preserves objects, which are used as teaching aids.

Museums preserve objects that are important to our history and culture. These objects can be used as teaching aids to help people learn about the past. For example, a museum might have a collection of dinosaur fossils that can be used to teach children about dinosaurs.

Museums also provide educational resources for students of all ages. They offer tours, workshops, and other programs that help students learn about different cultures and historical periods. These programs can be a valuable supplement to classroom learning.

The museum preserves culture and national identity.

Museums play an important role in preserving culture and national identity. They collect and exhibit objects that represent the history and traditions of a particular culture or country. This helps to keep these cultures alive and helps people to understand their own heritage.

For example, a museum in Japan might have a collection of traditional Japanese artifacts, such as kimonos, swords, and scrolls. This collection helps to preserve Japanese culture and identity.

It used by the researcher (source of information).

Museums are a valuable resource for researchers. They provide access to a wide variety of objects and information, which can be used to study different aspects of history, culture, and science.

For example, a researcher who is studying the history of fashion might visit a museum to see its collection of clothing from different eras. This collection can provide valuable insights into the evolution of fashion over time.

It acts as a tourist centre.

Museums are popular tourist destinations. They offer visitors a unique opportunity to learn about different cultures and historical periods.

Many museums offer special exhibits and events that are designed to appeal to tourists. For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of a particular city or region. This exhibit can help tourists to learn about the city’s past and its unique culture.

People learn about technological development.

Museums can also be used to learn about technological development. They often have exhibits on different technologies, such as transportation, communication, and manufacturing. These exhibits can help people to understand how technology has changed over time and how it has impacted our lives.

For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of the automobile. This exhibit can help people to learn about how the automobile has evolved from its early days to the modern car.

Enable learners to arouse creativity.

Museums can also help learners to arouse creativity. They provide a stimulating environment where people can explore different ideas and perspectives. This can help people to think more creatively and to come up with new ideas.

For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of art. This exhibit can help people to learn about different art styles and techniques. This can help people to develop their own creative skills.

Overall, museums offer a variety of benefits. They preserve objects, preserve culture and national identity, are used by researchers, act as tourist centres, help people learn about technological development, and enable learners to arouse creativity.


It needs knowledgeable people

Museums are responsible for preserving and interpreting artifacts and exhibits. This requires a team of knowledgeable people, including curators, conservators, educators, and security guards. These professionals need to have a deep understanding of the artifacts and exhibits, as well as the ability to communicate this information to the public.

It is possible to distort information through biases by the museum attendant

Museum attendants are responsible for providing information to visitors. However, they may also introduce their own biases into the interpretation of the exhibits. This can happen unintentionally, as a result of the attendant’s own experiences and perspectives. It can also happen intentionally, if the attendant is trying to promote a particular viewpoint.

Poor preservation of past items e.g. coins, pieces of cloth, and slaves chain can distort information

Museums are responsible for preserving artifacts and exhibits. However, this can be a challenge, as some materials are more fragile than others. For example, coins can corrode over time, and pieces of cloth can fade. If artifacts are not properly preserved, they can be damaged or destroyed, which can distort the information they contain.

It needs extensive care to maintain its beauty or origin

Museums need to take extensive measures to maintain the beauty and origin of their artifacts and exhibits. This includes controlling the environment, such as temperature and humidity, and using protective materials. It also requires regular cleaning and maintenance. These measures can be expensive and time-consuming.

6 factors that promoted plantation farming in Europe during the agrarian revolution

  • The Invention of machines for extensive farming e.g seedling horse drawn plough, iron hoe.

  • Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yields/ manure
  • Discovery of pesticides and fungicides which facilitate control of crops Diseases.
  • Improvement in transport especially the railway which facilitates the transportation of bulky goods/ farm products and farm workers
6 factors that promoted plantation farming in Europe during the agrarian revolution
Photo by Jannis Knorr on
  • High demand for food by the rapidly growing urban population.
  • Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials
  • Development of new breeds of crops as a result of research in agriculture