The location of the city on a defensive site. Hong Kong is located on an island on the east of China in the south china sea off the mainland. This location made it well sheltered from any possible evasion and also made it easily defendable in the event of any attack.

The presence of deep natural harbor also favored Hong Kong’s development. This deep natural harbor allows access to and anchorage of large going ocean vessels resulting into the handling of more cargo and thus more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The strategic location of Hong Kong in the south east of china is one of the most densely industrial parts of the country. In addition, the port is located amidst highly populated and rapidly industrializing countries like Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and many others thereby serving a very wide area. In addition, the port city also controls man international shipping lanes both from developing and developed countries and thus handling more cargo which has resulted in more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The earl settlement and occupation of the port city by the British. This occupation helped the port city in a way that Britain carried out the initial layout and planning of the port city making it a port of international standards. This occupation also opened links between Britain and Hong Kong as well as the rest of Europe. It also became an important distribution center for British goods and all this led to the growth and development of the port.

The favorable climatic conditions experienced at Hong Kong. Being located on monsoon Asia, the port is ice free throughout the ear making shipping activities to go on uninterrupted all ear and this has led to more cargo being handled by the port hence leading to its growth and development.

The presence of a rich wide hinterland. Hong Kong serves almost the whole of china together with neighboring countries like southern Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. It is located in one of the greatest industrialized conurbations of China in the world, Guangzhou ShenzenHomgkong conurbation. With many industries both manufacturing and service industries. Therefore this has led to more cargo being handled in the form of raw materials and finished industrial products. Apart from conurbation, mainland China is also Hong Kong’s major
hinterland comprising of agricultural produce minerals and many others products leading to more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The presence of a low tidal range. Hong Kong experiences a small or negligible tidal range which allows shipping activities to go on throughout the year as large ocean vessels can dock at the port throughout the year without interruptions.

The supportive government policy of Hongkong as well as mainland of China. The port city for a long period of time was under British occupation and he offered support for the growth and development of the port after it was handed over to mainland China on 1st July. The Chinese government has been supportive through financing various port facilities, maintaining stability, and attracting plenty of investments all of which have led to growth and development.

The presence of hard basement rocks. Such rocks provided a solid or firm foundation for the construction of various port facilities for example warehouses, docking areas, underground storage facilities and many others leading to the port city`s growth and development.

The rapid industrial development in Hongkong. Many industries especially multi-national companies set up short in Hongkong for example electronics and electrical industries, food
processing, textiles, chemical, and petro-chemical agro-processing, and many others. This rapid industrial development has increased the volume of cargo being handled through the increase in imports as well as raw materials of industrial products.

Rapid population increase in Hong Kong. This increase in population has been mainly as a result of many Chinese migrating from mainland China to come to Hong Kong for employment as well as higher social and economic infrastructures. Others have to come in from neighboring
countries like Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. Today the port city has more than 7 million inhabitants and this has increased the demand for various services and facilities like
housing apartments, recreation facilities, and many others. The provision of which has led to the physical expansion of the port city.

Availability of capital. This capital was at first mainly provided by the British who financed and setup various port facilities in the area. In addition, more capital was provided by the rich
Chinese entrepreneurs from mainland China who opened up various industries on the island. Such capital has been instrumental in setting up various port facilities as well as the expansion of Hong Kong.

Availability of skilled labour which was mainly provided by the British expatriates who were brought in to plan and lay out the port area. They also provided building skills for the various
port facilities resulting in the construction of various port facilities that not only stood the test of time but also the element of weather.

The use of modern technology. Modern techniques of machinery were brought in by the British making the port a modern international port with modern efficient facilities like loading and offloading cranes to direct incoming and outgoing vessels, weather warning systems so as to detect sudden storms and computerization of all port activities. All this has made the port more efficient and thus attract more cargo leading to increased revenue for development.

The efficient transport and communication facilities in Hongkong. These comprise of railway transport which is fully electrified and serves the port city and its neighboring areas like
Kowloon, Lantau and Kwaichung. Road transport is also highly developed connecting various parts to the city center. The port is also linked internationally with the use of air transport as the
major used by national career Cathy pacific. The such efficient transport system has led to easy delivery of cargo to and from the port.

The port’s location at the mouth of river Xian is commonly known as river pearl. This river connects the port to mainland china. It also supplements road and railway transport also offers fresh water for both domestic and industrial purposes.

The political stability enjoyed at Hong Kong for a long period of time that is over 100 years since the early British occupation. Such a long period of stability attracted massive investments and also created a conducive environment for the growth and expansion. It is this stability that has made the port to become a major international port of call.

The policy containerization. This policy ensures that all goods passing through the port are packed in metallic containers of given dimensions. This helps in a way that such cargo is easy to
handle as loading and offloading becomes easy and efficient due to the use of loading cranes.

The development of the tourism industry is a destination for many visitors all over the world due to its diverse attractions both physical and human. The increase in tourist activities led to an increase in demand for various facilities like hotels, modern roads recreation, security and all of which led to the growth and expansion of Hong Kong.



  • It sparked off national wide rebellions in South Africa.
  • A lot of lives were lost in the street riots that lasted for 8 days

  • Led to the arrest of Steve Biko on 18 August 1977 and later secretly killed on 2nd September 1977.
  • A lot of property was destroyed as the burned white cars, schools, buildings.
  • Some whites joined Africans to fight apartheid. For example white students in south Africa demonstrated against apartheid
  • African nationalists were arrested for example, Mandela.
  • Two white men were stoned to death by the rioters.
  • The Plans of enforcing the Afrikaans language to non-white students in colleges and universities were stopped
  • Many young Africans joined militant groups against the apartheid regime.

  • Africans were oppressed the more For examples prisoners were denied Hot water.
  • African nationalism increased.
  • Opposition against apartheid increased.
  • International sympathy for Africans increased.
  • The UN and OAU condemned the apartheid

Uses and dangers of sun


The sun is the main natural source of light.

Uses of the sun

1.    Sunlight gives us light.

2.    Plants use sunlight energy to make their own food.

3.    The sun is a source of vitamin D.

4.    We get solar energy from the sun.

5.    The sun is important in rain formation.

6.    The sun heat dries seeds, clothes, crops etc.

7.    Flying kites

Dangers of the sun

1.    Looking at the sun directly spoils the eyes.

2.    Long periods of sunshine dry up water sources.

3.    A long period of sunshine causes droughts.

uses and dangers of wind


Wind is moving air.

Uses of   wind

1.    Wind is use to run boats.

2.    Wind   is used to run machines e.g. windmills

3.    Wind is used for winnowing.

4.    Wind dries our clothing.

5.    Wind helps in pollination

6.    Wind helps in seed dispersal

Dangers of wind

1.    Strong wind blows off roofs of houses.

2.    Strong wind destroys crops and trees.

3.    Wind blows away topsoil.

4.    Strong wind slows down the speed of moving objects.

5.    Strong wind capsizes boats.

6.    Spread diseases.

Comparison of Land Reclamation in Kenya and Netherland


  • In both countries, flooding was a common problem.
  • Drainage ditches were used in both countries.
  • Canals were used in both countries.
  • The intention in both countries was to increase land for settlement and agriculture and control flooding.


  • Canals, dams and dykes were used to reclaim land in the Netherlands while Kenya used ditches, irrigation, clearing of bushes, etc.
  • In the Netherlands, the land was reclaimed from the sea while in Kenya, it was above sea level.
  • The Netherlands had two projects while Kenya had more.
  • In Netherlands, it was large scale while in Kenya it was in small scale.
  • In the Netherlands, it involved the use of advanced technology such as dams, dykes, pumping stations etc. while in Kenya it involved less advanced methods such as irrigation, afforestation, clearing of bushes etc.

  • In the Netherlands, the coastal land was being reclaimed while in Kenya, land distant from the sea was reclaimed.

The Effects of the Great Trek on the Africans

The Great trek increased on the whites’ population into the interior of South Africa i.e. both the British and the Boers.

The Great trek led to the establishment of the Boers republic in the interior of South Africa like Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natal.

The Great trek led to the mistreatment of the Africans since they treated them as second-class citizens by the whites more especially the Boers.

The Great trek led to increased wars between the trekking Boers and the Africans e.g. the battle of Vegkop, battle of Blood River, Moshoeshoe and the Boers.

The Africans lost their lives during the conflicts with the whites like the conflicts between the Boers and Dingane resulted into many Africans left dead.

There was depopulation was caused by the constant wars fought between the Boers and Dingane the leader of the Zulu people.

The Ndebele lost land to the Boers after their defeat at the battle of Vegkop by Boers who later took over the Ndebele land.

The Bapedi lost land to the Boers after their defeat in the Pedi resistance of 1861 against the Boer trekkers.

There was the displacement of many Africans from their original land by the Boers and later the British like the Ndebele and the Basotho people.

The Zulu under the leadership of Dingane lost 17,000 herds of cattle to the Boers and this left them in a state of absolute poverty.

Africans lost their independence to the Boers in the interior of South Africa like the Ndebele after the battle of Vegkop, the Zulu after the battle of Blood River.

There was increased exploitation of African labour by the Boers who paid them little or nothing for the labour offered on their farms by the Africans.

There was decline in agriculture production since Africans were not concentrating on agriculture activities, which led to famine in the interior.

The Africans lost their traditional culture since they adopted the western culture like western religion, dressing, education, etc. introduced by the whites.

The African traditional chiefs lost their powers and authority to the whites who became the rulers in the interior of South Africa.

The Great trek also led to the increased general insecurity because of the constant wars between the Africans and the whites who had come in the interior.

The Great trek intensified internal conflicts among the Africans like Dingane and his brother Mpande and this caused disunity among Africans.

The Great trek made Africans to acquire venereal western diseases through their contact with the whites.

The Great trek made Africans to acquire guns through their contact and this increased on the insecurity within the interior of South Africa.

The Great trek made African languages put in writing and this promoted African literature in the interior of South Africa.

The white communities in the interior of South Africa weakened many African states economically following their dominations.

Some Africans began to collaborate with the trekking Boers against the fellow Africans and this undermined the development of nationalism e.g. chief Moroka.

Because of the establishment of commercialized farms by the whites, Africans provided cheap labour on the Boers farms thus created a master slave situation.

Racial discrimination and segregation extended into the interior and promoted by the Boers living many Africans in a state of misery


Who were the Utilanders?

  • These were Europeans of British origin who comes to Africa during the mineral discovery.

  • They were prospectus miners and money lenders.
  • Most of them settled in Transvaal especially in the mines.
  • The Utilanders were supported by the British government at the cape.
  • They were not allowed political rights by the government of Paul Kruger.
%d bloggers like this: