How South Africa established her rule over Namibia

Following the culmination of World War I and the decisive defeat of the Germans, a significant chapter in the history of Southern Africa unfolded with the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia. The international stage saw a transformation as the League of Nations emerged as the custodian of global order and justice, entrusted with the responsibility of redrawing geopolitical boundaries in a manner that would facilitate stability and progress.

In this context, Namibia emerged as a crucial focal point, having been under German colonial rule before the war. The aftermath of the conflict necessitated a reimagining of Namibia’s trajectory, and it was within this intricate tapestry of diplomacy and reparation that the League of Nations deemed it fit to declare Namibia a mandated state, signaling a transition towards more equitable governance. This mantle of oversight was placed upon South Africa, a regional power with aspirations for strategic influence.

The declaration of Namibia as a mandated state was both a reflection of the shifting dynamics of international politics and a response to the calls for decolonization and self-determination that had gained momentum during and after the war. As part of the League of Nations’ framework, the mandate system was intended to be a temporary measure, a means by which colonial territories could be guided towards self-governance and eventual independence. However, the reality on the ground often diverged from these lofty ideals.

For Namibia, the transition from German to South African control brought about complex challenges. The aspirations of the indigenous populations for self-determination and representation clashed with South Africa’s interests in territorial control and resource exploitation. The ensuing years witnessed a struggle for agency and voice, as Namibian communities sought to assert their rights and chart their own destinies. This period was marked by tensions, resistance, and negotiations, ultimately leading to a protracted struggle for independence that would span several decades.

In hindsight, the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia serves as a poignant reminder of the complexities inherent in the decolonization process and the intricate interplay between global politics, regional dynamics, and the aspirations of local populations. It underscores the evolving nature of power and sovereignty in the aftermath of conflict, and it highlights the enduring legacy of this historical chapter in shaping the modern identity and aspirations of both Namibia and South Africa.

In 1919 the treaty of Versailles gave powers to South Africa to control Namibia as a mandated territory on behalf of the
League of Nations.


What were the effects of the Pedi resistance?

  • The Pedi were defeated in these wars of resistance.
  • Sekukuni surrendered and was arrested by the whites to released him later in 1881
  • Sekukuni was replaced by his Brother Mampuru in 1882
  • He was later killed by his brother with the help of whites.
  • The economy of Transvaal was weakened as it was costly
  • It increased British interference in the affairs of Transvaal.

  • The Pedi lost their impendence to the British.
  • Led to massive loss of lives
  • Property was destroyed.
  • Pedi lost more of their cattle to the whites.
  • Many people were displaced
  • The Pedi were divided
  • Pend lost their land
  • Paved way for other rebellions in south Africa
  • Massive suffering and misery was registered on the side of
    the Pedi.


The results of the 1908 National Convention in South Africa

  • The Boers and the British met in a friendly atmosphere for the first time.
  • English and Afrikaans were to be equal in South Africa as official languages.

  • The union government of the Boers and the British was agreed upon.
  • It was made clear that the union government was to be under the British government but the Boers were given subordinate (lower) positions.
  • The constitution for the union government was made.
  • The constitution was bidding to both the British and the Boers. They all had to respect it.
  • The voting rights were only given to Europeans. Africans and Asians were left out of the voting.
  • One union parliament was established to discuss the political issues of South Africa. However, the non – whites were excluded from this parliament.

  • The parliament had two chambers that is the house of assembly and the senate.
  • The union government headed by the Governor General appointed by the Queen of England.
  • Ten ministers assisted the governor.
  • The executive capital of the Union was located in Pretoria; capital Transvaal.
  • The Supreme Court for the union was established with headquarters at Bloemfontein in Orange Free State.
  • The Orange River Colony was changed to Orange Free State.
  • It laid a foundation for the apartheid policy in South Africa. It started the policy of separating Africans from whites.



Crop rotation Is the growing of different crops on the same piece of land season after season.


(i) Crops with high Nutrients requirement (heavy feeders) should be planted 1st in a newly cultivated land so that they utilize the nutrients before they are lost.
(ii) Deep rooted crops should be alternated with shallow rooted ones
(iii) Crops with similar pests and disease should not follow one another
(iv) Leguminous crops should be included in the rotation so as to improve soil fertility

(v) A fallow period should be included in the rotation as this destroys disease and pest cycles and also allows soil to recover the nutrients removed by the crops.


How was Shaka able to build and maintain a powerful Zulu state?

  • Shaka was able to build and maintain the Zulu state by carrying out reforms in the political, social and economic aspects of the Zulu state.

  • Shaka introduced a standing army. His worriers were always ready to defend the state.
  • Shaka replaced the traditional throwing spear with a short stabbing spear. The short stabbing spear was more effective in hand-to-hand fighting compared to the long throwing spear which left the warrior armless upon throwing it.
  • Shaka employed the scorched earth policy whereby he destroyed the enemies’ food and poisoned water sources thus weakening them.
  • Shaka employed cow horn military formation. In this tactic his warrior could encircle the enemy thus defeat them easily
  • There was tough training and drilling to master new methods of fighting by his soldiers
  • He forbade his soldiers from getting married until they had reached the age of 40 years.
  • Soldiers discharged from active service in the army after the age of 40 formed a reserve army that could be called upon to defend the kingdom whenever the need arouse.

  • Shaka strengthened his army by absorbing young men of the conquered territories into his force.
  • Shaka’s warriors did not carry their own luggage. Boys were employed to carry the luggage such that soldiers could move easily and swiftly while fighting.
  • Shaka employed spies who reported on the strength of the enemy’s side. This help to know how, where and when to strike the enemy.
  • Shaka used the religion as an instrument of nation building. He made himself the chief priest and persecuted other religious leaders.
  • Shaka abolished the traditional custom of the circumcision which affected the youth at the time they were needed to defend their state.
  • Shaka introduced a class of medicine men who treated the wounded soldiers.
  • He replaced the Dingiswayo’s small shields with big ones. The warriors would be protected from enemies’ spears.
  • Military Indunas were not allowed to hold meetings without the consent of Shaka.
  • Shaka replace the traditional councils of chiefs with military commanders called Indunas.

The chiefs of the conquered territories were either replaced by Shaka’s nominees or had to pay allegiance to Shaka.

Shaka abolished the wearing of sandals by his forces this made their movements swift.

Shaka encouraged trade and friendship with the British

Shaka also promotes agriculture to ensure ready supply of food in his kingdom.



  • Rapid population growth, Uganda experiences a high population of 34.4 million people and the increasing population in areas such as kigezi, Mbale, Bugishu has led to high demand for land for settlement thus destroying forests like Mabira, Kibale, mt. Elgon forests, etc.

  • Forests are major sources of biomass in form of fire wood and charcoal especially in rural areas. This has led to cutting down forests like Mabira, Bugongo and Maramagambo.
  • The increasing demand for timber for furniture, building and construction has led to clearing parts of Kibale forest, Kalinju and Budongo which are accessible.
  • Burning of forests especially by hunters, farmers and grazers has destroyed Mwenge forest reserve, mt. Rwenzori forests and Luwero forests. Also many hectares of forests of Aber and Opit in Gulu were burnt in 1982 by locals.
  • Ignorance of the people especially in the rural areas like in Kibale and Kigezi, who have inadequate knowledge about the value of forests. Such simply destroy forests because they look at them as obstacles to more meaningful land use.
  • Corruption in the forest department in form of bribes, illegal sale of timber, illegal lumbering, thus clearing mostly soft wood trees like Mafuga.

  • Political insecurity where forests have been cleared to check on insecurity like in 1980s Luwero forests were cut down, Nyamityobora forest in Mbarara, etc for security reasons.
  • Limited resources invested in the forest department leading to inefficient equipments used, limited rangers, wardens and other staff to monitor forests and reduce on encroachment on forests like Mabira, Budongo and others.
  • Pests and diseases which have led to clearing forests to destroy tsetse flies like in southern Busoga, Bunya forest in Mayuge and kibale forests.
  • Over grazing of both domestic and wild animals like kadama forest reserves, Timu and Morongole in Karamoja area. Also Aber and Agwata forests are facing illegal grazing by the Iteso pastoralists.
  • The use of traditional and rudimentary tools in felling trees like axes and pangas has caused deforestation. Foristance Mafuga and Muko forest reserve have been destroyed by felling immature trees.

  • The need for more land for cultivation like Bugala forest was cut down by BIDCO to plant palm oil trees, and Kakira and Lugazi sugar estates cleared part of Mabira forest for sugar cane plantations.
  • Industrial establishment where forests are cut down to provide land for industrial set up like in Namanve and to get fire wood for tea processing in Ankole tea estate, firing bricks in Butende and Uganda clays in Kajjansi.
  • Mining activities foristance gold mining in kitaka-kamwenge, Buhweju-Bushenyi has led to clearing of forests in such areas for the activity.



Uses of Sugar

  • In baking to sweeten bread, cakes, etc.
  • Sweetening foods and drinks e.g. porridge, chapati, tea, coffee, etc.
  • Making local brews e.g. Karubu, nguru, etc.
  • In soft drinks industries e.g. soda, juice, etc.
  • Making sweets and chocolates, etc.
  • Manufacture of drugs e.g. syrups and sugar-coated tablets.

Uses of By-products

  • Molasses is used as a sweetener for livestock feeds.
  • Its also used to manufacture ethanol, acetone, and ethyl-acetate.
  • Bagasse or fibre left after squeezing the juice is used as fuel for boilers, for preparing pulp for making paper used for making cement and fertilizer bags and as fodder or manure.
  • Filter cake resulting from the filtration process is used as manure for the cane.


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