Following the culmination of World War I and the decisive defeat of the Germans, a significant chapter in the history of Southern Africa unfolded with the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia. The international stage saw a transformation as the League of Nations emerged as the custodian of global order and justice, entrusted with the responsibility of redrawing geopolitical boundaries in a manner that would facilitate stability and progress.
In this context, Namibia emerged as a crucial focal point, having been under German colonial rule before the war. The aftermath of the conflict necessitated a reimagining of Namibia’s trajectory, and it was within this intricate tapestry of diplomacy and reparation that the League of Nations deemed it fit to declare Namibia a mandated state, signaling a transition towards more equitable governance. This mantle of oversight was placed upon South Africa, a regional power with aspirations for strategic influence.
The declaration of Namibia as a mandated state was both a reflection of the shifting dynamics of international politics and a response to the calls for decolonization and self-determination that had gained momentum during and after the war. As part of the League of Nations’ framework, the mandate system was intended to be a temporary measure, a means by which colonial territories could be guided towards self-governance and eventual independence. However, the reality on the ground often diverged from these lofty ideals.
For Namibia, the transition from German to South African control brought about complex challenges. The aspirations of the indigenous populations for self-determination and representation clashed with South Africa’s interests in territorial control and resource exploitation. The ensuing years witnessed a struggle for agency and voice, as Namibian communities sought to assert their rights and chart their own destinies. This period was marked by tensions, resistance, and negotiations, ultimately leading to a protracted struggle for independence that would span several decades.
In hindsight, the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia serves as a poignant reminder of the complexities inherent in the decolonization process and the intricate interplay between global politics, regional dynamics, and the aspirations of local populations. It underscores the evolving nature of power and sovereignty in the aftermath of conflict, and it highlights the enduring legacy of this historical chapter in shaping the modern identity and aspirations of both Namibia and South Africa.
In 1919 the treaty of Versailles gave powers to South Africa to control Namibia as a mandated territory on behalf of the
League of Nations.
Crop rotation Is the growing of different crops on the same piece of land season after season.
PRINCIPLES THAT GUIDE CROP ROTATION
(i) Crops with high Nutrients requirement (heavy feeders) should be planted 1st in a newly cultivated land so that they utilize the nutrients before they are lost.
(ii) Deep rooted crops should be alternated with shallow rooted ones
(iii) Crops with similar pests and disease should not follow one another
(iv) Leguminous crops should be included in the rotation so as to improve soil fertility
(v) A fallow period should be included in the rotation as this destroys disease and pest cycles and also allows soil to recover the nutrients removed by the crops.
- Shaka was able to build and maintain the Zulu state by carrying out reforms in the political, social and economic aspects of the Zulu state.
- Shaka introduced a standing army. His worriers were always ready to defend the state.
- Shaka replaced the traditional throwing spear with a short stabbing spear. The short stabbing spear was more effective in hand-to-hand fighting compared to the long throwing spear which left the warrior armless upon throwing it.
- Shaka employed the scorched earth policy whereby he destroyed the enemies’ food and poisoned water sources thus weakening them.
- Shaka employed cow horn military formation. In this tactic his warrior could encircle the enemy thus defeat them easily
- There was tough training and drilling to master new methods of fighting by his soldiers
- He forbade his soldiers from getting married until they had reached the age of 40 years.
- Soldiers discharged from active service in the army after the age of 40 formed a reserve army that could be called upon to defend the kingdom whenever the need arouse.
- Shaka strengthened his army by absorbing young men of the conquered territories into his force.
- Shaka’s warriors did not carry their own luggage. Boys were employed to carry the luggage such that soldiers could move easily and swiftly while fighting.
- Shaka employed spies who reported on the strength of the enemy’s side. This help to know how, where and when to strike the enemy.
- Shaka used the religion as an instrument of nation building. He made himself the chief priest and persecuted other religious leaders.
- Shaka abolished the traditional custom of the circumcision which affected the youth at the time they were needed to defend their state.
- Shaka introduced a class of medicine men who treated the wounded soldiers.
- He replaced the Dingiswayo’s small shields with big ones. The warriors would be protected from enemies’ spears.
- Military Indunas were not allowed to hold meetings without the consent of Shaka.
- Shaka replace the traditional councils of chiefs with military commanders called Indunas.
The chiefs of the conquered territories were either replaced by Shaka’s nominees or had to pay allegiance to Shaka.
Shaka abolished the wearing of sandals by his forces this made their movements swift.
Shaka encouraged trade and friendship with the British
Shaka also promotes agriculture to ensure ready supply of food in his kingdom.