• Rapid population growth, Uganda experiences a high population of 34.4 million people and the increasing population in areas such as kigezi, Mbale, Bugishu has led to high demand for land for settlement thus destroying forests like Mabira, Kibale, mt. Elgon forests, etc.

  • Forests are major sources of biomass in form of fire wood and charcoal especially in rural areas. This has led to cutting down forests like Mabira, Bugongo and Maramagambo.
  • The increasing demand for timber for furniture, building and construction has led to clearing parts of Kibale forest, Kalinju and Budongo which are accessible.
  • Burning of forests especially by hunters, farmers and grazers has destroyed Mwenge forest reserve, mt. Rwenzori forests and Luwero forests. Also many hectares of forests of Aber and Opit in Gulu were burnt in 1982 by locals.
  • Ignorance of the people especially in the rural areas like in Kibale and Kigezi, who have inadequate knowledge about the value of forests. Such simply destroy forests because they look at them as obstacles to more meaningful land use.
  • Corruption in the forest department in form of bribes, illegal sale of timber, illegal lumbering, thus clearing mostly soft wood trees like Mafuga.

  • Political insecurity where forests have been cleared to check on insecurity like in 1980s Luwero forests were cut down, Nyamityobora forest in Mbarara, etc for security reasons.
  • Limited resources invested in the forest department leading to inefficient equipments used, limited rangers, wardens and other staff to monitor forests and reduce on encroachment on forests like Mabira, Budongo and others.
  • Pests and diseases which have led to clearing forests to destroy tsetse flies like in southern Busoga, Bunya forest in Mayuge and kibale forests.
  • Over grazing of both domestic and wild animals like kadama forest reserves, Timu and Morongole in Karamoja area. Also Aber and Agwata forests are facing illegal grazing by the Iteso pastoralists.
  • The use of traditional and rudimentary tools in felling trees like axes and pangas has caused deforestation. Foristance Mafuga and Muko forest reserve have been destroyed by felling immature trees.

  • The need for more land for cultivation like Bugala forest was cut down by BIDCO to plant palm oil trees, and Kakira and Lugazi sugar estates cleared part of Mabira forest for sugar cane plantations.
  • Industrial establishment where forests are cut down to provide land for industrial set up like in Namanve and to get fire wood for tea processing in Ankole tea estate, firing bricks in Butende and Uganda clays in Kajjansi.
  • Mining activities foristance gold mining in kitaka-kamwenge, Buhweju-Bushenyi has led to clearing of forests in such areas for the activity.



Uses of Sugar

  • In baking to sweeten bread, cakes, etc.
  • Sweetening foods and drinks e.g. porridge, chapati, tea, coffee, etc.
  • Making local brews e.g. Karubu, nguru, etc.
  • In soft drinks industries e.g. soda, juice, etc.
  • Making sweets and chocolates, etc.
  • Manufacture of drugs e.g. syrups and sugar-coated tablets.

Uses of By-products

  • Molasses is used as a sweetener for livestock feeds.
  • Its also used to manufacture ethanol, acetone, and ethyl-acetate.
  • Bagasse or fibre left after squeezing the juice is used as fuel for boilers, for preparing pulp for making paper used for making cement and fertilizer bags and as fodder or manure.
  • Filter cake resulting from the filtration process is used as manure for the cane.



  • Pests e.g. termites attack setts lowering the farmer’s yield.
  • Diseases e.g. sugarcane mosaic which causes the crop to become stunted with leaves becoming yellow.
  • Mismanagement of some sugar factories resulting in their closure and subsequent loss of income and jobs.
  • The inability of some factories to cope with the supply of cane from out-growers due to low production capacity and outdated technology.
  • The local sugar industry faces competition from cheap imported sugar from COMESA countries.
  • Strikes by cane farmers and transporters due to inadequate pay resulting in drop in output.

Problems experienced by the Imperial British East Africa Company in Kenya

  • There was a scarcity of mineral wealth and profitable export commodities which made it difficult for the company to generate enough wealth to meet the cost of administration.

  • There was a poor transport network which made the movement of goods slow/ difficult/ expensive thereby making the enterprise less profitable.
  • There was a lack of proper coordination between the company headquarters in Britain and the officials in Kenya hence delays/ waste and misunderstandings.
  • The company officials lacked the experience which was necessary for the success of the administration in the protectorate.
  • Some of the company officials were corrupt and therefore concentrated on their personal enrichment at the expense of the enterprise.
  • Resistance from the local communities posed a great challenge to the company as it had to administer and at the same time suppress the communities.
  • There was inadequate capital to carry out its operations thus making the administration of the protectorate ineffective.

  • Unfavorable climatic conditions/ tropical diseases claimed the lives of some of the company personnel.
  • Lack of enough personnel.
  • Rivalry from German East Africa affected its operations.

The factors that promoted international trade along the east African coast

When Seyid Said took control of Zanzibar, he encouraged foreign traders to trade with Zanzibar in order to develop new markets for products from the East African mainland.

He strived to attract Indian money lenders (Banyans) to come and settle in Zanzibar, which increased the volume of trade in east Africa.

the factors that promoted international trade along the east African coast.

  • The Monsoon winds, which facilitated transport.
  • Trade between the coast and the far east, which existed before the 19th century.
  • Demand for goods at the coast and the outside world.
  • Availability of trade goods like ivory, gold, slaves, beads and guns.

  • Protection of Arab and Swahili traders by the Sultan.
  • The deep harbours and good beaches as well as the accessibility of the region by sea, which attracted traders.
  • Imposition of a unified customs duty of 5% by the Sultan, which encouraged trade.
  • Introduction of a monitory system by Seyid Said, which facilitated trade. Copper coins, Spanish Crown and Maria Theresa dollars were used.
  • Indian Banyans or Baluchis (money lenders), who financed trade by giving credit facilities to the traders.


The location of the city on a defensive site. Hong Kong is located on an island on the east of China in the south china sea off the mainland. This location made it well sheltered from any possible evasion and also made it easily defendable in the event of any attack.

The presence of deep natural harbor also favored Hong Kong’s development. This deep natural harbor allows access to and anchorage of large going ocean vessels resulting into the handling of more cargo and thus more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The strategic location of Hong Kong in the south east of china is one of the most densely industrial parts of the country. In addition, the port is located amidst highly populated and rapidly industrializing countries like Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and many others thereby serving a very wide area. In addition, the port city also controls man international shipping lanes both from developing and developed countries and thus handling more cargo which has resulted in more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The earl settlement and occupation of the port city by the British. This occupation helped the port city in a way that Britain carried out the initial layout and planning of the port city making it a port of international standards. This occupation also opened links between Britain and Hong Kong as well as the rest of Europe. It also became an important distribution center for British goods and all this led to the growth and development of the port.

The favorable climatic conditions experienced at Hong Kong. Being located on monsoon Asia, the port is ice free throughout the ear making shipping activities to go on uninterrupted all ear and this has led to more cargo being handled by the port hence leading to its growth and development.

The presence of a rich wide hinterland. Hong Kong serves almost the whole of china together with neighboring countries like southern Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. It is located in one of the greatest industrialized conurbations of China in the world, Guangzhou ShenzenHomgkong conurbation. With many industries both manufacturing and service industries. Therefore this has led to more cargo being handled in the form of raw materials and finished industrial products. Apart from conurbation, mainland China is also Hong Kong’s major
hinterland comprising of agricultural produce minerals and many others products leading to more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The presence of a low tidal range. Hong Kong experiences a small or negligible tidal range which allows shipping activities to go on throughout the year as large ocean vessels can dock at the port throughout the year without interruptions.

The supportive government policy of Hongkong as well as mainland of China. The port city for a long period of time was under British occupation and he offered support for the growth and development of the port after it was handed over to mainland China on 1st July. The Chinese government has been supportive through financing various port facilities, maintaining stability, and attracting plenty of investments all of which have led to growth and development.

The presence of hard basement rocks. Such rocks provided a solid or firm foundation for the construction of various port facilities for example warehouses, docking areas, underground storage facilities and many others leading to the port city`s growth and development.

The rapid industrial development in Hongkong. Many industries especially multi-national companies set up short in Hongkong for example electronics and electrical industries, food
processing, textiles, chemical, and petro-chemical agro-processing, and many others. This rapid industrial development has increased the volume of cargo being handled through the increase in imports as well as raw materials of industrial products.

Rapid population increase in Hong Kong. This increase in population has been mainly as a result of many Chinese migrating from mainland China to come to Hong Kong for employment as well as higher social and economic infrastructures. Others have to come in from neighboring
countries like Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. Today the port city has more than 7 million inhabitants and this has increased the demand for various services and facilities like
housing apartments, recreation facilities, and many others. The provision of which has led to the physical expansion of the port city.

Availability of capital. This capital was at first mainly provided by the British who financed and setup various port facilities in the area. In addition, more capital was provided by the rich
Chinese entrepreneurs from mainland China who opened up various industries on the island. Such capital has been instrumental in setting up various port facilities as well as the expansion of Hong Kong.

Availability of skilled labour which was mainly provided by the British expatriates who were brought in to plan and lay out the port area. They also provided building skills for the various
port facilities resulting in the construction of various port facilities that not only stood the test of time but also the element of weather.

The use of modern technology. Modern techniques of machinery were brought in by the British making the port a modern international port with modern efficient facilities like loading and offloading cranes to direct incoming and outgoing vessels, weather warning systems so as to detect sudden storms and computerization of all port activities. All this has made the port more efficient and thus attract more cargo leading to increased revenue for development.

The efficient transport and communication facilities in Hongkong. These comprise of railway transport which is fully electrified and serves the port city and its neighboring areas like
Kowloon, Lantau and Kwaichung. Road transport is also highly developed connecting various parts to the city center. The port is also linked internationally with the use of air transport as the
major used by national career Cathy pacific. The such efficient transport system has led to easy delivery of cargo to and from the port.

The port’s location at the mouth of river Xian is commonly known as river pearl. This river connects the port to mainland china. It also supplements road and railway transport also offers fresh water for both domestic and industrial purposes.

The political stability enjoyed at Hong Kong for a long period of time that is over 100 years since the early British occupation. Such a long period of stability attracted massive investments and also created a conducive environment for the growth and expansion. It is this stability that has made the port to become a major international port of call.

The policy containerization. This policy ensures that all goods passing through the port are packed in metallic containers of given dimensions. This helps in a way that such cargo is easy to
handle as loading and offloading becomes easy and efficient due to the use of loading cranes.

The development of the tourism industry is a destination for many visitors all over the world due to its diverse attractions both physical and human. The increase in tourist activities led to an increase in demand for various facilities like hotels, modern roads recreation, security and all of which led to the growth and expansion of Hong Kong.



  • It sparked off national wide rebellions in South Africa.
  • A lot of lives were lost in the street riots that lasted for 8 days

  • Led to the arrest of Steve Biko on 18 August 1977 and later secretly killed on 2nd September 1977.
  • A lot of property was destroyed as the burned white cars, schools, buildings.
  • Some whites joined Africans to fight apartheid. For example white students in south Africa demonstrated against apartheid
  • African nationalists were arrested for example, Mandela.
  • Two white men were stoned to death by the rioters.
  • The Plans of enforcing the Afrikaans language to non-white students in colleges and universities were stopped
  • Many young Africans joined militant groups against the apartheid regime.

  • Africans were oppressed the more For examples prisoners were denied Hot water.
  • African nationalism increased.
  • Opposition against apartheid increased.
  • International sympathy for Africans increased.
  • The UN and OAU condemned the apartheid
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