Reasons why devolved governments were established in Kenya

The following are reasons why devolved governments were established in Kenya.

  • They were established as a means of promoting democratic and accountable exercise of power.
  • To Foster national unity by recognizing diversity.

  • To give powers of self-governance to the people and enhance the participation of the people in the exercise of the powers of the State and in making decisions affecting them.
  • To recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development.
  • To protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized communities.
  • To promote social and economic development and the provision of services throughout Kenya.
  • To ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya.

  • To facilitate the decentralization of State organs, their functions and services, from the capital of Kenya;
  • To enhance checks, balances and the separation of powers.



The following were the reasons for the coming of Arabs to the coast of East Africa


It is noted that since time in memory there existed commercial relationship between Arabs and the people of E. African coast. At the coast, there existed tradable items like gold, ivory, agricultural parts etc which were got from the interior of E. Africa to the coast and they were exchanged with items like clothes, glass wear, guns, etc. Therefore the major reason why the Arabs came to the coast was to trade.


It is on record that during fighting wars in Arabia, many Muslims left their homeland and got shelter on the E. African coast.

It should be noted that during these civil wars and conflicts, some Arabs and Persians found it impossible to stay at home therefore they decided to migrate to the E. African coast to save their lives.

There was need to acquire new lands in form of colonies

It is reported that some Arabs came to acquire colonies on the E. African coast and practice the Islamic law on the people of East Africa.

When they arrived, they really established dynasties and they spread Islam as well.

Presence of monsoon winds

   The movement of Arabs from their homeland to the E. African coast was facilitated by the presence of monsoon winds blew 2 periods in the year ie from the Middle East to E. Africa and from E. Africa to middle.

The good favourable climatic conditions at the coast

These conditions led to the coming of the Arabs who settled on the E. African coast e.g. Saidi Seyyid moved his capital from Oman to Zanzibar due to the good climate at the coast which favoured Agriculture.

Need to spread Islam

Some few Arabs wanted to spread Islam despite the fact that the majority came at the coast for other things. They did this put into practice the command of Allah which is to spread his religion.

Some of the Arabs to E. African coast because of love for adventure e.g. Ibin Batuuta came to see the nature of the E. African coast and its physically features.

The hospitable nature of the people of East Africa

People of East Africa were so welcoming the Arabs a situation that attracted many Arabs to come and settle permanently at the coast.

Bandwagon effect

Some Arabs came to the coast because they saw their friends coming.



The Partition of Africa was the division of the African continent into 50 colonies by European powers in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The process began in the late 1870s and was largely completed by 1914.

The main European powers involved in the partition were Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Portugal, Italy, and Spain. These powers were motivated by a number of factors, including the desire for economic resources, such as rubber and diamonds, the need for new markets for manufactured goods, and the desire to spread European culture and values.

The partition of Africa was a complex and often brutal process. Many African people were displaced from their homes and forced to work in the service of European colonists. The partition also led to the suppression of African cultures and languages.

The following are effects of the partition of Africa

  • The Europeans gained fame, prestige and recognition by having colonial possessions. For example, by acquiring colonies, France regained the self-esteem she had lost when she was defeated in the Franco-Prussian war. By being a colonial power, she acquired a new position in the political map of Europe.

  • European powers economic growth speeded up. European industries grew as Africa provided raw materials, labour and market, which promoted trade with huge profits. E.G. King Leopold ii monopolized the Congo trade, favouring the Belgian economy. However, Africans suffered as their economies were disrupted by the Europeans.
  • Drawing of present-day boundaries in Africa as Europeans set up their spheres of influence.
  • Border conflicts in Africa since present-day boundaries were drawn without considering the existing boundaries and ethnic groups.
  • Introduction of European administrative systems throughout the African continent. E.g. the French applied Assimilation as the British used both Direct and Indirect rule.

  • Introduction of European languages in Africa such as English, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Dutch, German, Etc.
  • Some African communities were split as present-day boundaries were drawn. E.G. the Somalis are found in Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti. The Maasai are found in Kenya and Tanzania and the Ewe are found in Ghana and Togo.
  • The collapse of African kingdoms and other systems such as Asante and Dahomey as Africa fell under European occupation.
  • Introduction of the monitory economy in Africa.
  • Economic disruption and exploitation of Africans by the Europeans through land alienation forced labour and taxation. Agriculture, trade, industry as well as transport and communication were developed for the benefit of the colonial masters.

  • Introduction of Western education, medicine and culture, thus undermining the indigenous African set-up.
  • Formation of postcolonial African states, based on the territories set up after the partition.
  • Continued diplomatic and other ties between Africa and the European countries.
  • Neo-colonialism due to the unchecked overdependence of African countries on Europe for financial and technical support.

Therefore, without the high level of technology in Europe, the Scramble for and Partition of Africa would not have been possible.

With military advancement as well as the discovery, invention and development of steamships, railway transport, sophisticated weapons and Quinine to cure malaria, the Europeans were an upper hand over the Africans.

What caused the partition of Africa?

There are many factors that led to the partition of Africa, but some of the most important ones include:

  • The Industrial Revolution: The Industrial Revolution led to a demand for new resources, such as rubber and diamonds, which were found in abundance in Africa.
  • The rise of nationalism: The rise of nationalism in Europe led to a desire for new colonies, which could be used to showcase the power and prestige of the European nation.
  • The weakness of African states: Many African states were weak and divided, making them easy prey for European powers.
  • The lack of international law: There was no international law to prevent European powers from colonizing Africa.
  • The Berlin Conference: The Berlin Conference of 1884-85 was a meeting of European powers that formalized the partition of Africa.

The partition of Africa was a complex and often brutal process. Many African people were displaced from their homes and forced to work in the service of European colonists. The partition also led to the suppression of African cultures and languages.

The legacy of the partition of Africa is still felt today. Many African countries are still struggling to overcome the economic and political problems that were created by the partition.

Who was involved in the partition of Africa?

Britain: Britain was the most active participant in the partition of Africa, and it came to control the largest share of the continent. Britain’s colonies included Nigeria, Sudan, Kenya, and South Africa.

France: France was the second most active participant in the partition of Africa, and it came to control a large swath of territory in West and Central Africa. France’s colonies included Senegal, Mali, Congo, and Chad.

Germany: Germany was a latecomer to the partition of Africa, but it was able to acquire a significant amount of territory in East and Central Africa. Germany’s colonies included Togo, Cameroon, and Tanganyika.

Belgium: Belgium acquired the Congo Free State in 1885, which was one of the largest colonies in Africa. The Congo Free State was ruled by King Leopold II of Belgium, and it was notorious for its brutality and exploitation

Portugal: Portugal had been active in Africa for centuries, and it retained control of its colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Guinea-Bissau.

Italy: Italy was a latecomer to the partition of Africa, and it only acquired a few colonies in the Horn of Africa. Italy’s colonies included Eritrea and Somaliland.

Spain: Spain had been active in Africa for centuries, and it retained control of its colonies in Morocco and Spanish Guinea.


objectives of the Berlin conference and terms of berlin act

objectives of the Berlin conference

  • To set or lay down the rules of the partition.
  • To eliminate conflict among European nations over their expansion into Africa.

  • To define any area effectively occupied by each nation to avoid interference.
  • To sort out different European views on the slave trade and its abolition.
  • Establishment of authority in regions under occupation.
  • To safeguard native African interests.
  • To protect traders, scientists, explorers and Christian missionaries from local attacks.
  • To guarantee religious tolerance.
  • To guarantee free trade.
  • To draw the borders of regions under occupation on a map.

terms of the Berlin Act.

  • Any state laying claim to any part of Africa had to inform other interested parties. The claims had to be discussed and ratified if they were justifiable.
  • All signatories had to declare their spheres of influence I.E. an area under each nation’s occupation.
  • The effective occupation had to be established in an area once the area was declared a sphere of influence.
  • Any power acquiring territory in Africa had to undertake stamping out of the slave trade and safeguard African interests.
  • The River Congo and River Niger basins were left free for any interested power to navigate.
  • If a European power claimed a certain part of the African coast, the land in the interior or behind the coastal possession became the coastal claimant’s sphere of influence.

  • Any country that wished to declare a protectorate in Africa had to show that its authority in the region was firm enough to protect existing European rights and guarantee free trade.


The origin of the Highland Nilotes and how they migrated and settled into Kenya

main classifications of the Highland Nilotes.

  • The Kalenjin.
  • The Jie.

communities that belong to each of the two main Highland Nilotic groups.

The Kalenjin consist of:

  • Tugen,
  • Keio,
  • Marakwet,
  • Nandi,
  • Kipsigis,
  • Sabaot,
  • Pokot,
  • Elgon.

The Jie comprises:

  • The Karamojong,
  • Kumam,
  • Iteso,
  • Turkana,
  • The Jie themselves.

Migration and settlement of the Highland Nilotes into Kenya

Highland Nilotes were pastoralists. Their ancestors may first have lived in Karamoja before they split into various groups.

The Highland Nilotes may have been the earliest Nilotic speakers in Kenya. They must have occupied most of western Kenya because their neighbours speak a lot about them. They are mentioned in tales told of their warlike nature, e.g. the Luo story of Lwanda Magere (a strong Luo warrior) who a Nandi lady eventually betrayed in order for the Nandi to gain victory over the Luo.

Kalenjin traditions indicate that their original homeland lay at a place to the north-western part of Kenya, between Sudan and Ethiopia, from where the highland Nilotes may have began migrating during the last millennium. The Dadog of Tanzania and the pioneer Kalenjin emigrants in Kenya such as the Sirikwa may have occupied the Rift Valley by 700AD.

Highland Nilotic remnants, therefore, spread towards the western mount Elgon highlands, next to the Kenya-Uganda border. These became the ancestors of the Kalenjin speakers we have today.

The Kalenjin first lived as a single community on mount Kamalinga to the northwest of the lake Turkana region. In the 17th century, they began expanding southwards to the slopes of Mount Elgon, where some of them remained as others moved on.

The Bok, Bongomek and Kony are among those that remained. Indeed, it was from the Kalenjin that the Bantu got some cultural practices, such as circumcision.

By early 17th century, the Kalenjin had inhabited Nandi, Aldai, Kamasiya, Elgon, etc. As pastoralists, they roamed and grazed in their new homeland, which led to intermarriage between them and the Uasingishu, the Maasai, the Sirikwa, etc

Socio-political systems among the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period

  • .The Agikuyu at touched a lot of political and social importance to the family and age-set.
  • Being the smallest social and political unit, every family had its own head. Several families formed a clan.

  • Gikuyu country was divided into clans or territorial units, each of which was made up of several sub-clans (Mbari) with common descent, usually living on the same ridge. each territorial unit was headed by a council of elders: the “Kiama”, under a senior elder known as “Muramati” or “Muthamaki” (spokesman). Muramati was highly respected by the community because of his wisdom and leadership qualities. However, he was not a chief.
  • Each sub-clan was ruled by a council of elders subordinate to the “Kiama”. This performed religious, administrative and judicial roles within the sub-clan, leaving the “Kiama” to deal with matters beyond its ability or communal mandate.
  • At puberty, young boys were initiated through elaborate rites, crowned with circumcision, during which they were taught the social values, customs, and their duties to the community as warriors.

  • Boys circumcised at the same time formed an Age-set (Rika). Age-sets formed the military base for the Gikuyu community since members of the same age-set considered one another as brothers, which created a strong political and social bond. Circumcision of girls was also done every year.
  • They believed in one God (Ngai), who was all-powerful and in complete control of all life and who has a definite dwelling place: Mount Kirinyaga (Mount Kenya). Since God was all-powerful, people prayed to him through priests. priests offered the community’s prayers to God through ancestral spirits. Diviners interpreted God’s messages to the people. Sacrifices were offered to God in thanksgiving or to ask for his blessings.
  • The Agikuyu strongly believed in ancestral spirits, who continued to live for many generations, even after physical death and who were all-powerful as intermediaries between God and the living.

  • Medicine men and diviners were very important in the community. The Medicine man (“Mundu Mugo”) could cure certain diseases and expel evil spirits. Medical skills were inherited from close relatives. The Diviner (“Murathi”) could foretell the future.
  • From the main council of elders, a council of senior elders was formed.


.MUSEUMS: These are places or buildings where information and objects are preserved it involves all terms, which show culture,political-economic and technological development from the past to the present.

Objects can be early coins, clothes, mineral cowries, or religious and ceremonial symbols. Museums can be national, Regional, District and village.e.g. National Museums in DaresSalaam, Bagamoyo, Butiama, Kalenga Iringa.


Preserve historical documents and objects: Museums are responsible for preserving historical documents and objects for future generations. This includes artifacts from different cultures and time periods, as well as documents that record important events in history. Museums use a variety of techniques to preserve these items, such as storage in controlled environments, conservation, and restoration.

Shows concrete remains of objects: Museums also show concrete remains of objects. This includes fossils, archaeological finds, and other objects that provide evidence of the past. These objects can help us learn about the history of our planet, the evolution of life, and the cultures of different peoples.

It is a place for tourist and study tours: Museums are also a popular destination for tourists and study tours. People come to museums to learn about history, art, and culture. Museums offer a variety of educational programs and activities, such as lectures, workshops, and guided tours.

It is the center of cultural and national identity: Museums can also be a center of cultural and national identity. They can help us to understand our own culture and the cultures of other people. Museums can also promote pride in our heritage and traditions.


It preserves objects, which are used as teaching aids.

Museums preserve objects that are important to our history and culture. These objects can be used as teaching aids to help people learn about the past. For example, a museum might have a collection of dinosaur fossils that can be used to teach children about dinosaurs.

Museums also provide educational resources for students of all ages. They offer tours, workshops, and other programs that help students learn about different cultures and historical periods. These programs can be a valuable supplement to classroom learning.

The museum preserves culture and national identity.

Museums play an important role in preserving culture and national identity. They collect and exhibit objects that represent the history and traditions of a particular culture or country. This helps to keep these cultures alive and helps people to understand their own heritage.

For example, a museum in Japan might have a collection of traditional Japanese artifacts, such as kimonos, swords, and scrolls. This collection helps to preserve Japanese culture and identity.

It used by the researcher (source of information).

Museums are a valuable resource for researchers. They provide access to a wide variety of objects and information, which can be used to study different aspects of history, culture, and science.

For example, a researcher who is studying the history of fashion might visit a museum to see its collection of clothing from different eras. This collection can provide valuable insights into the evolution of fashion over time.

It acts as a tourist centre.

Museums are popular tourist destinations. They offer visitors a unique opportunity to learn about different cultures and historical periods.

Many museums offer special exhibits and events that are designed to appeal to tourists. For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of a particular city or region. This exhibit can help tourists to learn about the city’s past and its unique culture.

People learn about technological development.

Museums can also be used to learn about technological development. They often have exhibits on different technologies, such as transportation, communication, and manufacturing. These exhibits can help people to understand how technology has changed over time and how it has impacted our lives.

For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of the automobile. This exhibit can help people to learn about how the automobile has evolved from its early days to the modern car.

Enable learners to arouse creativity.

Museums can also help learners to arouse creativity. They provide a stimulating environment where people can explore different ideas and perspectives. This can help people to think more creatively and to come up with new ideas.

For example, a museum might have an exhibit on the history of art. This exhibit can help people to learn about different art styles and techniques. This can help people to develop their own creative skills.

Overall, museums offer a variety of benefits. They preserve objects, preserve culture and national identity, are used by researchers, act as tourist centres, help people learn about technological development, and enable learners to arouse creativity.


It needs knowledgeable people

Museums are responsible for preserving and interpreting artifacts and exhibits. This requires a team of knowledgeable people, including curators, conservators, educators, and security guards. These professionals need to have a deep understanding of the artifacts and exhibits, as well as the ability to communicate this information to the public.

It is possible to distort information through biases by the museum attendant

Museum attendants are responsible for providing information to visitors. However, they may also introduce their own biases into the interpretation of the exhibits. This can happen unintentionally, as a result of the attendant’s own experiences and perspectives. It can also happen intentionally, if the attendant is trying to promote a particular viewpoint.

Poor preservation of past items e.g. coins, pieces of cloth, and slaves chain can distort information

Museums are responsible for preserving artifacts and exhibits. However, this can be a challenge, as some materials are more fragile than others. For example, coins can corrode over time, and pieces of cloth can fade. If artifacts are not properly preserved, they can be damaged or destroyed, which can distort the information they contain.

It needs extensive care to maintain its beauty or origin

Museums need to take extensive measures to maintain the beauty and origin of their artifacts and exhibits. This includes controlling the environment, such as temperature and humidity, and using protective materials. It also requires regular cleaning and maintenance. These measures can be expensive and time-consuming.

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