• Fresh water lakes provide water for domestic and industrial use.
  • Fresh water lakes also provide water for irrigation e.g. Naivasha for horticultural farms around it.
  • Man made lakes and some other lakes e.g. Victoria (Owen falls) are used for generation of H.E.P.
  • Lakes are used for transport.

  • Some lakes contain valuable minerals e.g. trona at L. Magadi and salt at L. Katwe in Uganda.
  • Many lakes have fish which is a source of food and employment to fishermen and traders.
  • Lakes are also a tourist attraction by providing recreational facilities and being habitats for wildlife.
  • Some lakes are sources of rivers e.g. Victoria for White Nile and L.Tana for Blue Nile.
  • Lakes modify the climate of surrounding areas by sea breezes and convectional rainfall.
Lakes are habitats for disease vectors e.g. mosquitoes and snails which transmit Malaria and bilhazia.
Lakes may cause flooding due to excessive rainfall or when dams break leading to loss of life and property.
Lakes are habitats for dangerous animals like crocodiles, hippos and snakes which kill humans.


  • Lakes are habitats for disease vectors e.g. mosquitoes and snails which transmit Malaria and bilhazia.
  • Lakes may cause flooding due to excessive rainfall or when dams break leading to loss of life and property.

  • Lakes are habitats for dangerous animals like crocodiles, hippos and snakes which kill humans.
  • Lakes cause drowning accidents to people in time of storms.



  • Limited valuable fish species in Uganda’s fishing grounds. Many fish species like mudfish, and catfish from L. Albert are less valuable and cannot compete favourably on the international scene.

  • The major fishing grounds of the Victoria-Kyoga basin have been invaded by a water weed known as water hyacinth which has endangered the life of fish. The weed block oxygen and light penetration into the water which is necessary for plankton and fish growth. It also blocks fishing boats and habours snakes which attack fishermen.
  • Pollution especially around Lake Victoria which emanates from various industries in Jinja and Kampala like Nile breweries and Uganda breweries respectively pour wastes into the lake claiming many fish.
  • There is a problem of overfishing by greedy fishermen by using under nets and beach seining on Golo and Buikwe on L. Victoria and Kyoga fishing grounds. This has reduced on fish.
  • Prolonged drought conditions especially affect the north, eastern and western Uganda’s fishing grounds like L. Albert, George, and Edward. Drought reduces water levels, increase water temperature which leads fish death.

  • Fish predators like the Nile perch which eat other species, crocodiles, snakes, and birds on Lake Victoria which gradually reduce on fish numbers.
  • Limited capital by fishermen to buy modern fishing gears of moto-boats, purse seining nets and preservation facilities which has led to continuous use of traditional methods of poison, and beach seining like at Masese and Katunguru on L. Victoria and George respectively thus under exploitation of the fish resource.
  • There is a limited market for fish and fish products and this is mainly due to competition from the international market with other fish-producing countries like Peru and Norway. Also, local market is affected by poverty in districts of Nakasongola, Moroto and some tribes which take fish as a taboo like the Hima.
  • Limited handling facilities both at landing sites like Lambu and Masese on L. Victoria, market levels and storage of fish. This leads to losses since fish is perishable.
  • Inefficient transport network especially during rainy seasons when roads like Masaka-Lambu is impassable, and also some fishing grounds like Rwenshama, are located in remote areas which delay perishable fish to reach the market centers thus losses.

  • Political instabilities in some fishing grounds like L. Albert and Edward i.e. Kony and ADF wars respectively which limited full exploitation of the fishing grounds. Also wars in Uganda since 1960s have continuously drained the government treasury thus low government funding of the industry.
  • Waterborne diseases like bilharzia which affect the fishermen leading to low exploitation of fish.
  • Others include floating vegetation, ragged relief, irregular shorelines, moon light, waterfalls, water currents accidents, limited government support, use of poor fishing methods, remoteness of fishing grounds, reclamation of swamps, corruption, siltation of fishing grounds and limited research.



  • It discourages mechanization thus low farm production especially in Mbale.
  • Since the plots are small, they are ever used thus soil exhaustion and low yields like in Kabalore.

  • It accelerates land conflicts especially individual land owners and families sharing land boundaries like in some parts of Mpigi and Kisoro.
  • Land fragmentation facilitates the occurrence of environmental degradation in form of severe soil erosion, deforestation and soil degradation like in Kabale and Kisoro.
  • Small plots may fail to produce adequate food stuffs to feed the available population thus famine and malnutrition like in Kabale.
  • It doesn’t encourage the growing of cash crops since farmers concentrates on growing food crops to feed their families. This is true in Mbale and Manafa districts.
  • The crops may easily be damaged by wild animals and birds and their protection may be difficult in case the plots are located far away from one another like in Mbale.
  • Crops may be damaged by crop pests and diseases from the neighboring plots.

  • Land fragmentation leads to stagnation of agricultural sector thus leading to un employment since agriculture employ about 80% of Uganda’s population which is evident in Kisoro.
  • Farmers are likely to use poor farming methods since they are peasants like in Mbale and Kabale, this leads to soil erosion, exhaustion and reduced crop yields.



  • Pests e.g. termites attack setts lowering the farmer’s yield.
  • Diseases e.g. sugarcane mosaic which causes the crop to become stunted with leaves becoming yellow.
  • Mismanagement of some sugar factories resulting in their closure and subsequent loss of income and jobs.
  • The inability of some factories to cope with the supply of cane from out-growers due to low production capacity and outdated technology.
  • The local sugar industry faces competition from cheap imported sugar from COMESA countries.
  • Strikes by cane farmers and transporters due to inadequate pay resulting in drop in output.


The location of the city on a defensive site. Hong Kong is located on an island on the east of China in the south china sea off the mainland. This location made it well sheltered from any possible evasion and also made it easily defendable in the event of any attack.

The presence of deep natural harbor also favored Hong Kong’s development. This deep natural harbor allows access to and anchorage of large going ocean vessels resulting into the handling of more cargo and thus more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The strategic location of Hong Kong in the south east of china is one of the most densely industrial parts of the country. In addition, the port is located amidst highly populated and rapidly industrializing countries like Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines and many others thereby serving a very wide area. In addition, the port city also controls man international shipping lanes both from developing and developed countries and thus handling more cargo which has resulted in more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The earl settlement and occupation of the port city by the British. This occupation helped the port city in a way that Britain carried out the initial layout and planning of the port city making it a port of international standards. This occupation also opened links between Britain and Hong Kong as well as the rest of Europe. It also became an important distribution center for British goods and all this led to the growth and development of the port.

The favorable climatic conditions experienced at Hong Kong. Being located on monsoon Asia, the port is ice free throughout the ear making shipping activities to go on uninterrupted all ear and this has led to more cargo being handled by the port hence leading to its growth and development.

The presence of a rich wide hinterland. Hong Kong serves almost the whole of china together with neighboring countries like southern Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. It is located in one of the greatest industrialized conurbations of China in the world, Guangzhou ShenzenHomgkong conurbation. With many industries both manufacturing and service industries. Therefore this has led to more cargo being handled in the form of raw materials and finished industrial products. Apart from conurbation, mainland China is also Hong Kong’s major
hinterland comprising of agricultural produce minerals and many others products leading to more revenue for the port’s growth and development.

The presence of a low tidal range. Hong Kong experiences a small or negligible tidal range which allows shipping activities to go on throughout the year as large ocean vessels can dock at the port throughout the year without interruptions.

The supportive government policy of Hongkong as well as mainland of China. The port city for a long period of time was under British occupation and he offered support for the growth and development of the port after it was handed over to mainland China on 1st July. The Chinese government has been supportive through financing various port facilities, maintaining stability, and attracting plenty of investments all of which have led to growth and development.

The presence of hard basement rocks. Such rocks provided a solid or firm foundation for the construction of various port facilities for example warehouses, docking areas, underground storage facilities and many others leading to the port city`s growth and development.

The rapid industrial development in Hongkong. Many industries especially multi-national companies set up short in Hongkong for example electronics and electrical industries, food
processing, textiles, chemical, and petro-chemical agro-processing, and many others. This rapid industrial development has increased the volume of cargo being handled through the increase in imports as well as raw materials of industrial products.

Rapid population increase in Hong Kong. This increase in population has been mainly as a result of many Chinese migrating from mainland China to come to Hong Kong for employment as well as higher social and economic infrastructures. Others have to come in from neighboring
countries like Malaysia, the Philippines, and many others. Today the port city has more than 7 million inhabitants and this has increased the demand for various services and facilities like
housing apartments, recreation facilities, and many others. The provision of which has led to the physical expansion of the port city.

Availability of capital. This capital was at first mainly provided by the British who financed and setup various port facilities in the area. In addition, more capital was provided by the rich
Chinese entrepreneurs from mainland China who opened up various industries on the island. Such capital has been instrumental in setting up various port facilities as well as the expansion of Hong Kong.

Availability of skilled labour which was mainly provided by the British expatriates who were brought in to plan and lay out the port area. They also provided building skills for the various
port facilities resulting in the construction of various port facilities that not only stood the test of time but also the element of weather.

The use of modern technology. Modern techniques of machinery were brought in by the British making the port a modern international port with modern efficient facilities like loading and offloading cranes to direct incoming and outgoing vessels, weather warning systems so as to detect sudden storms and computerization of all port activities. All this has made the port more efficient and thus attract more cargo leading to increased revenue for development.

The efficient transport and communication facilities in Hongkong. These comprise of railway transport which is fully electrified and serves the port city and its neighboring areas like
Kowloon, Lantau and Kwaichung. Road transport is also highly developed connecting various parts to the city center. The port is also linked internationally with the use of air transport as the
major used by national career Cathy pacific. The such efficient transport system has led to easy delivery of cargo to and from the port.

The port’s location at the mouth of river Xian is commonly known as river pearl. This river connects the port to mainland china. It also supplements road and railway transport also offers fresh water for both domestic and industrial purposes.

The political stability enjoyed at Hong Kong for a long period of time that is over 100 years since the early British occupation. Such a long period of stability attracted massive investments and also created a conducive environment for the growth and expansion. It is this stability that has made the port to become a major international port of call.

The policy containerization. This policy ensures that all goods passing through the port are packed in metallic containers of given dimensions. This helps in a way that such cargo is easy to
handle as loading and offloading becomes easy and efficient due to the use of loading cranes.

The development of the tourism industry is a destination for many visitors all over the world due to its diverse attractions both physical and human. The increase in tourist activities led to an increase in demand for various facilities like hotels, modern roads recreation, security and all of which led to the growth and expansion of Hong Kong.


Uses and dangers of sun


The sun is the main natural source of light.

Uses of the sun

1.    Sunlight gives us light.

2.    Plants use sunlight energy to make their own food.

3.    The sun is a source of vitamin D.

4.    We get solar energy from the sun.

5.    The sun is important in rain formation.

6.    The sun heat dries seeds, clothes, crops etc.

7.    Flying kites

Dangers of the sun

1.    Looking at the sun directly spoils the eyes.

2.    Long periods of sunshine dry up water sources.

3.    A long period of sunshine causes droughts.

uses and dangers of wind


Wind is moving air.

Uses of   wind

1.    Wind is use to run boats.

2.    Wind   is used to run machines e.g. windmills

3.    Wind is used for winnowing.

4.    Wind dries our clothing.

5.    Wind helps in pollination

6.    Wind helps in seed dispersal

Dangers of wind

1.    Strong wind blows off roofs of houses.

2.    Strong wind destroys crops and trees.

3.    Wind blows away topsoil.

4.    Strong wind slows down the speed of moving objects.

5.    Strong wind capsizes boats.

6.    Spread diseases.

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