Uses and dangers of sun


The sun is the main natural source of light.

Uses of the sun

1.    Sunlight gives us light.

2.    Plants use sunlight energy to make their own food.

3.    The sun is a source of vitamin D.

4.    We get solar energy from the sun.

5.    The sun is important in rain formation.

6.    The sun heat dries seeds, clothes, crops etc.

7.    Flying kites

Dangers of the sun

1.    Looking at the sun directly spoils the eyes.

2.    Long periods of sunshine dry up water sources.

3.    A long period of sunshine causes droughts.

uses and dangers of wind


Wind is moving air.

Uses of   wind

1.    Wind is use to run boats.

2.    Wind   is used to run machines e.g. windmills

3.    Wind is used for winnowing.

4.    Wind dries our clothing.

5.    Wind helps in pollination

6.    Wind helps in seed dispersal

Dangers of wind

1.    Strong wind blows off roofs of houses.

2.    Strong wind destroys crops and trees.

3.    Wind blows away topsoil.

4.    Strong wind slows down the speed of moving objects.

5.    Strong wind capsizes boats.

6.    Spread diseases.

Comparison of Land Reclamation in Kenya and Netherland


  • In both countries, flooding was a common problem.
  • Drainage ditches were used in both countries.
  • Canals were used in both countries.
  • The intention in both countries was to increase land for settlement and agriculture and control flooding.


  • Canals, dams and dykes were used to reclaim land in the Netherlands while Kenya used ditches, irrigation, clearing of bushes, etc.
  • In the Netherlands, the land was reclaimed from the sea while in Kenya, it was above sea level.
  • The Netherlands had two projects while Kenya had more.
  • In Netherlands, it was large scale while in Kenya it was in small scale.
  • In the Netherlands, it involved the use of advanced technology such as dams, dykes, pumping stations etc. while in Kenya it involved less advanced methods such as irrigation, afforestation, clearing of bushes etc.

  • In the Netherlands, the coastal land was being reclaimed while in Kenya, land distant from the sea was reclaimed.

Who were the Utilanders?

  • These were Europeans of British origin who comes to Africa during the mineral discovery.

  • They were prospectus miners and money lenders.
  • Most of them settled in Transvaal especially in the mines.
  • The Utilanders were supported by the British government at the cape.
  • They were not allowed political rights by the government of Paul Kruger.

Disdvantages of map orientation in geography fieldwork

This technique involves turning or rotating the base map or survey map extract of the area being studied until the features on the map match/tally with those on the ground .it enabling the researcher to identify local names, positions and patterns of features in the field.

  The following are disadvantages of map orientation in geography fieldwork

  • Some features may no longer be traced especially human features
  • Obsolete/outdated maps; some maps may contain old or outdated information
  • Students may not be able to interpret the base maps because of the technical/difficult language used by cartographers.


sampling is the method that involves choosing /selecting part of the whole to represent the whole.

the chosen portion is studied and its characteristics /views are taken to represent those of other similar features in the field.

the following are disadvantages or problems of using sampling in geography fieldwork

  • Bias in selection is common .in most cases researchers only select people in the field who are interested in their study and in some instances the selection of the respondents is gender biased.
  • Lack of representative samples; for instance when a fish landing site is visited, many of the interviewed people may not be fish mongers but just people living around the fishing village.
  • It tends to generalize too much and some of the unique characteristics of phenomena are left out.

  • It may be hindered by faulty tools.
  • There is a problem of inaccessibility caused by physical barriers like forests, wetlands,hills e.t.c



sampling method involves choosing /selecting part of the whole to represent the whole. the chosen portion is studied and its characteristics /views are taken to represent those of other similar features in the field.

the following are advantages of sampling in geography fieldwork

  • It is time saving since few entities/items are chosen to represent the whole.
  • Allows a detailed study of a sample to be made i.e. yields a lot of information.
  • Unbiased data is obtained because the researcher comes into direct contact with the phenomena.
  • It allows generalizations to be made about other similar phenomena.
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