The contributions of Tippu Tip to the development of long-distance trade in East Africa

Tippu Tip was born in 1830 in Zanzibar, the name Tippu Tip was given to him as a nickname due to the sound made by his gun. His real name was Mohammed Bin Hamid born to a father a trader and a farmer in Tabora.

He separated from his father and he went and his trading empire at Manyema in Congo. He played the following roles in the development of long distance trade.

  • He extended the long distance trade in Congo where he traded with some tribes in East Congo.
  • He made commercial agreements with Mirambo and Urambo and Namaza of Ujiji so that they allow his caravans without interference.
  • He supplied the coastal Arabs with copper and gold from eastern Congo.
  • He contributed to trade routes that went to eastern Congo and taxed the Arab traders who used these routes like he obtained a lot of wealth from the Arab traders.

  • He traded with the Belgians in Congo and supplied them with honey, slaves, gold and copper and in return got money, clothes, guns etc. from them.
  • He minimized the conflicts between Arabs and Europeans in eastern Congo by representing their interests in Congo as a ruler of the Yao people.
  • Before moving to Congo, Tipu Tipu assisted his father to organize and conduct trade at Tabora and helped him to put up plantations of rice.
  • He employed Congolese to hunt for elephants (ivory) especially when the demand increased in Asia, which he exported to the coast.
  • He built a very big commercial empire at Eastern Congo which attracted more Swahili traders from Tabora to the eastern coast.

  • He lost his trade in slaves when slave trade was abolished. In 1890, he returned to Zanzibar and never returned to Congo until he died in 1905.


The organization of the Zulu state politically, socially and economically

Political organization.

  • The kingdom was highly centralized with the king as the head and traditional chiefs under him.
  • The king was assisted by the traditional chiefs and military Indunas for effective control of the society.

  • The traditional council of elders played an important role in Zulu society. They advised the king on the important matters of the state. However, during the time of Shaka, their role declined.
  • The king had powers to appoint and to dismiss any of his officials. They were there answerable to him.
  • Zulu kingdom had a strong standing army with the king acting as the commander in chief.
  • The arm was well-trained, equipped and ready to fight at any time. The army was on alert to defend or offend the Zulu enemies.
  • The army lived in barracks called settlements and this among other included the settlement of Bulawayo.
  • The army was divided into age regiments each under a military commander called an Induna.
  • Each military settlement had a section of royal women headed by senior women and acted as spies for the king on the Indunas.

  • The Indunas were not allowed to hold meetings without consent and permission from the king. This was to stop any conspiracy against the king.
  • Succession to the Zulu throne was hereditary. That is the king’s eldest son could inherit the Zulu throne.
  • The conquered area formed the outer provinces of the Zulu state. Each province was under the military Induna and assisted by the chief.

Social organization

  • Socially the king was the leader as he presided over traditional ceremonies such as the traditional fruit harvest which was attended by all people the kingdom.
  • Initiation ceremonies were performed to mark the entry into adulthood. During Shaka’s reign, however, circumcision was abolished.
  • Marriage was restricted until one served in the army for a period of 40 years. At this age, the military men could be retired at the same time with the females of an appropriate age for marriage.

  • The Zulu were divided in social classes called clans, traditionally the royal clan provided kings and chiefs while warrior come from the class of commoners
  • The Zulu worshiped their gods and the most important was the god of the war.
  • The king controlled all social affairs and was the biggest social figure.
  • Polygamy was common among the Zulu

Economic organization

  • Economically the kingdom was highly centralized and all means of lively hood belonged to the king. The king was the giver of everything to his people
  • Young boys captured by the Zulu army looked after the captured cattle.
  • The girls and young women captured by the Zulu army worked in agriculture fields while the old were put to death.
  • All the age regiments were self-sufficient in food production and livestock. That is each settlement provided its own food and kept its colour of animals..
  • Raiding cattle, goats and women was an important source of wealth of the Zulu state.
  • The Zulu also traded with foreigner most especially the Portuguese at the Delgoa bay
  • The Zulu also carried out ironworking and produced weapons such as short stubbing spears and long throwing spear.



The Great Economic Depression was a situation characterized by the collapse of the global economy. It started in the Canadian agricultural sector and by 1929, it had spread to Europe and the entire world after the collapse of the Wall Street Stock Exchange Market in USA in October 1929.

The European economies were badly hit except Russia which had a communist economy, especially due to the fact that they were just in the post-World War I recovery process.

The depression was characterized by mass unemployment, low prices, failure of agricultural markets, closure of banks and other industries leading to the decline in the standards of living. During the depression, there was also widespread violence characterized by riots and strikes, human misery and social-political tensions. Generally, during this period there were many goods but with less money to purchase these goods.


The effects of World War I of 1914-1918 led to the occurrence of the depression. This war devastated world economies, destroyed industries, ships, agricultural farms or gardens and even human resources. It’s estimated that a total of 186 billion United States dollars were lost or incurred as a result of World War I. Such devastations affected production, employment rates, individual purchasing power and general economic activity in the world. For example, trade declined because countries were left so poor that they could not import large quantities of agricultural and industrial produce. Consequently, there was low level of import and consumption which explains why the depression was severest in the USA which was the greatest producer in the period after the war. 

The effect of the Gold Standard System which operated in the world economies before 1929 created economic rigidities that led to the depression. Under this system, every individual economy in the world was supposed to have; in its circulation, a total sum of money equivalent to its gold reserves in the bank. However, the reality was that several nations naturally possessed less of such gold reserves, and secondly; many countries indebted to USA were by 1929 required to pay American debts in gold. As much of the gold reserves of the indebted nations flowed out to America, this created acute shortage of money supply among world economies because several nations were either paying their gold to USA or simply naturally endowed with little gold resources. As countries reduced their money supply in circulation, there was increasingly declining purchasing power which resulted into lower investment returns or profits. As the profits declined, this led to the failure and closer of businesses. This in effect made the employers to lay off workers, hence leading unemployment and thus the outbreak of the Great Economic Depression.

The policy of economic nationalism or protectionism pursued by some countries caused the Great Economic Depression. After World War I, countries of Europe and America pursued economic protectionism in order to safeguard their economies against foreign competition, but the policy instead ruined or shattered international trade hence leading to the economic depression. For example, America, the less affected economy after the war, adopted a protectionist policy by which she charged high import taxes as a way to discourage importation (to her internal markets) while pursuing an aggressive exportation of her industrial and agricultural output. Other countries especially in Europe also responded in similar ways not only to the USA but also among themselves. This undermined international trade as countries increasingly produced larger volumes of outputs and could only sell them locally where the purchasing power was very limited. As a result, home markets became flooded with locally produced goods which forced the prices to decline. This led to a decline in profits which called for a decline in production, and a reduced production meant further reduced profits. This brought about the retrenchment of industrial workers and closure of businesses. All these paved way for unemployment, famine, general collapse of the economy and human suffering, hence leading to the occurrence of the Great Economic Depression of 1929-1935.

The effects of overproduction in the 1920s coupled with limited markets caused the Great Economic Depression. The post war period saw scientific and technological advancement not only in Europe but also America and other parts of the world. After the war, scientific innovativeness tended to shift from the warfare or military field to agricultural and industrial development. In the field of agriculture for instance, new machinery and tractors as well as modern farming techniques were invented to foster large scale farming while in the industrial sector; better industrial machines were also invented to facilitate rapid industrial production. Such scientific innovations more than ever increased the production of both agricultural and industrial goods that soon exceeded the domestic consumptions. This was worsened by the protectionism policy which virtually deprived such heavy production of external and overseas markets. The result was huge surplus production that could be sold only if prices were reduced. This mostly hit the agricultural sector whose products couldn’t wait for the possibilities of price increase because they could easily perish. Producers that hesitated to sell at down cut prices had a great deal of their products unsold or expire which forced them to cut down production or simply fall from business. A situation of this kind led to enormous loss of incomes by producers, bred a financial crisis, unemployment, and general breakdown of economic activity in the various world economies, hence leading to the occurrence of the Great Economic Depression of 1929-1935.

The rumours about the closure of the World Stock Exchange Market at the Wall Street in USA sparked off the economic storm (fear or fight) that caused the depression. In the post war period, the value of stock (shares) had risen to unrealistic heights but as rumours began to spread about the impending end to this situation, about 600 investors rushed to sell their shares. On 24th October 1929, 13 million shares were sold and on 29th October 16.5million shares were exchanged. At the end of October 1929, American investors had lost 40,000 million dollars and even withdrew their short term loans from Europe.  At the same time, they stopped lending and this was unfortunate for countries like Austria and Germany whose post war re-construction was entirely dependent on the American credit. The consequence was that there was less money to buy goods on the European continent. This caused paralysis in investment and production, hence causing the Great Economic Depression of 1929 -1935.

The widespread unemployment that existed in the world economies at that time caused the Great Economic Depression. For example, although most European countries like Britain, France and Germany registered some level of economic boom in the post-World War I period, unemployment remained high. This therefore caused falling standards of living as people could not afford to purchase the basic goods and services due to the lack of jobs. Consequently, industries closed down as their output lacked adequate markets, hence leading to the occurrence of Great Economic Depression by 1929.

Income inequalities and poverty also worked to plunge the world into an economic depression between 1929 and 1935.  Most of the profits made by the industrialists were not evenly distributed among the workers. Although wages were increased by an average of 88% between 1923 and 1929, profits also shot up by 20%. This reduced the purchasing power of the workers at the same time the manufacturers and industrialists were not willing to improve the welfare of the workers through increased pay. For example, millions of Europeans could not afford a radio, a car or electric washer while the employers at the same time seemed not to be willing to change the wage structure. This made an economic depression inevitable by 1929.

The nature of the American loan or credit scheme partly led to the occurrence of the Great Economic Depression. During and after World War I, both the victorious and defeated European nations borrowed huge loans from the USA in order to sustain the war and to rebuild their devastated economies respectively. Thus, at the end of the war, almost all European countries were deeply involved in repayment of the American loans. From 1924, when USA pressurized the repayment of the outstanding loans, this created a situation where huge sums of money and gold flowed from the European economies to the USA not in exchange of goods and services but rather in repayment of loans. This reduced the level of investment, aggregate demand and purchasing power across Europe, hence leading to a financial crisis that finally led to the Great Economic Depression by 1929.

The heavy war reparations or indemnity also partly caused the Great Economic Depression of 1929-1935. At the end of World War I, Germany and her allies like Austria and Bulgaria were fined huge sums of money for the damages (human and material) caused during the war.  But as if not enough, these nations of Europe were forced to surrender some of their economically rich territories to the allied powers which hampered their economic prosperity. For example, Germany lost the rich mineral areas of Alsace and Lorraine, the Saar coal mines and all her African colonies. On top of this, the defeated nations were neither free to export nor import to and from the other European countries. All these strained relations and highly affected international trade between the victor and the defeated nations and the world at large. The result was an increased financial crisis which deteriorated into the Great Economic Depression by 1929. 

The failure of the League of Nations also laid ground for the occurrence of the Great Economic Depression. For example, it failed to establish an economic framework or mechanism to promote free international trade. As a result of this weakness, countries began to pursue economic protectionism, a policy that paved way for the depression. International trade was therefore compromised as the world slid into over production without readily sufficient markets. Secondly, as the watch dog of global peace and prosperity, the League of Nations also failed to come out with a clear policy to regularize currency circulation in regard to the prevalent gold standard system. One may also argue that it was a league’s weakness not to regulate the US-Gold based debt recovery and the reparation payments which ruined relations between the USA and her debtor nations on one hand and also the defeated powers and the victor powers on the other hand. All this affected the international trade, hence paving way for the occurrence of the Great Economic Depression by 1929.

The growing speculation by prominent politicians about the depression in different countries caused the Great Economic Depression.  These people were using the mass media or press and they circulated rumours and propaganda about the impending depression which created panic, speculation and paralysis that disorganized economic activities even before the actual depression. For example, the speculation about the closure of the Wall Street Stock Exchange Market in USA made people to withdraw their money in the banks and kept it in other forms like buying gold. This reduced the amount of money in banks that would have been provided to people to buy the goods on the market. A situation of this kind therefore paved way for the occurrence of the 1929–1935 Great Economic Depression.


How were the European powers able to recover from the 1929 – 1935 Great Economic Depression?

By 1936, almost all the countries of the world had recovered from the World Economic Depression. The following were the ways through which the depression was brought to an end.

A World Economic Conference was organized to overcome the economic depression.  This conference was held in 1933 in Geneva and it was attended by representatives from 66 nations.  The delegates worked out measures to solve the Great Economic Depression. For example, there was stabilization of the world currency, removal of free trade restrictions and implementation of uniform tariffs on imports and exports.

There was cancellation of the reparation payments that had been imposed on the defeated nations by the Versailles treaty of 1919 and had crippled their economies. This was done during the Lausanne conference of June – July 1932 that was held in Switzerland to liquidate the payments of reparations by Germany to the former Allied and Associated powers of World War I. It was attended by the creditor powers (Great Britain, France, Belgium and Italy) and Germany and it resulted in an agreement on 9th July 1932 between the above powers. By this agreement, it was concluded by the allied powers that the difficult economic conditions of that time made the continued reparation repayments by Germany impossible and therefore they were virtually abolished. This therefore helped Germany to overcome the depression.

There was charging of high tariffs the on imports by some countries so as to overcome the depression. This helped to protect the domestic markets from foreign competition. With time, this increased the sale of both industrial and agricultural products which offset surpluses, thus leading to the end of the depression.

There was also the expansion of public works by some countries as a measure to end the depression. Giant projects like construction of bridges, dams and highways were undertaken which provided employment opportunities to many people, thus reducing the problem of widespread unemployment that had characterized the Great Economic Depression. This was the case in USA where the President Franklin Roosevelt introduced a series of public work projects and rural rehabilitation schemes between 1933 and 1936 under the famous New Deal Policy.

There was also the creation of trading blocs through regional economic integration or co-operation. This revived free international trade which had been shattered by the protectionist policies that were practiced by the different countries. For example, there was the formation of the British Common Wealth in 1932, USA came up with the integration of the South American states, and the Scandinavian countries formed the OSLO Bloc while the agricultural nations of Eastern Europe also teamed up under the one regional trading bloc.

There was also the change of governments in some countries as a measure to overcome the depression. The governments that had failed to address the economic problems caused by the depression were overthrown and replaced with new and strong ones that the masses expected to end their suffering. For example, in Germany the Weimar republic was overthrown by Nazists under Adolf Hitler in 1934 while in Britain the Labour Party government was also forced to resign in the same year and the Conservative Party took over power.

The abandonment of the Gold Standard system was another measure undertaken to overcome the depression. The European nations stopped the system of Gold standard because it had caused economic rigidities that had caused the depression.  Therefore, regardless of the amount of gold in the reserves or banks, money was printed by the central banks of the various nations which increased the purchasing power of the masses, thus offsetting the surplus products which led to the end of the depression.

It was also solved through the provision of unemployment benefits. For example, in Britain and USA whoever was above 18 years of age was to be paid some money even if he or she was unemployed.  There was also provision of aid to the women and children. All these increased the purchasing power of the masses, hence solving economic depression.

Some countries carried out currency depreciation or devaluation as a measure to overcome the economic depression. By this policy, countries like USA deliberately reduced the value of their currencies in relation to the currencies of other countries. This consequently made their exports cheaper, thus increasing their volume of sales to other countries. This increased production and subsequently more employment opportunities that helped countries to overcome the depression.

Economic imperialism was also adopted to overcome the depression. Some powerful countries became aggressive on others so as to solve the problems caused by the depression. Such countries embarked on territorial conquests to acquire raw materials, markets and areas for further investment so as to address the domestic problems created by the depression. For example, Japan invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931 which was rich in silk and cotton. Italy occupied Ethiopia in 1935 in search for raw materials and German invaded the Saar Coal fields, Austria and Czechoslovakia.

There was adoption of agro-based industries by several countries as a measure to overcome the depression. These industries provided ready markets to both the agricultural and industrial goods which subsequently boosted production. With increased production, more employment opportunities were created, thus reducing poverty and subsequently resulting in high a purchasing power among the masses. All these helped to overcome the economic depression by 1935.

Economic reforms were put in place to address the depression. These policies were designed to improve on the industrial and agricultural sectors. Trade unions in various countries were given power to organize and bargain for the rights of the workers like increased pay.  Also, progressive taxes were levied on the rich to subsidize the poor.  These measures increased peoples’ earnings, created more jobs and improved the general welfare of the masses.

There was also the adoption of outright force by the existing governments against the rioters and other forms of social unrest.  In France for example, the police shot and killed fifteen demonstrators during the February 1934 ant-government street demonstration in Paris. Those who survived were forced to abandon street protests and riots against the government.

There was also military conscription as a measure to overcome the economic depression. Some countries like Germany, France and Britain recruited many of their citizens into the army so as to reduce the unemployment problem which was rampant during the 1930s.  This enabled such people to earn income which increased their purchasing power, thus helping such countries to overcome the Great Economic Depression.

Government control of banks was also adopted to end the depression. Through this measure, countries were able to restrict lending and borrowing. They argued that money which was borrowed for investment was simply consumed. The USA was also forced to stop granting loans to the European countries and she instead started demanding for the repayment to her loans especially those she had advanced to different European powers before 1929 in order to boost her economy.

Some European countries like Britain declared free trade. This helped them to increase on the volume of sales of the exports.


How South Africa established her rule over Namibia

Following the culmination of World War I and the decisive defeat of the Germans, a significant chapter in the history of Southern Africa unfolded with the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia. The international stage saw a transformation as the League of Nations emerged as the custodian of global order and justice, entrusted with the responsibility of redrawing geopolitical boundaries in a manner that would facilitate stability and progress.

In this context, Namibia emerged as a crucial focal point, having been under German colonial rule before the war. The aftermath of the conflict necessitated a reimagining of Namibia’s trajectory, and it was within this intricate tapestry of diplomacy and reparation that the League of Nations deemed it fit to declare Namibia a mandated state, signaling a transition towards more equitable governance. This mantle of oversight was placed upon South Africa, a regional power with aspirations for strategic influence.

The declaration of Namibia as a mandated state was both a reflection of the shifting dynamics of international politics and a response to the calls for decolonization and self-determination that had gained momentum during and after the war. As part of the League of Nations’ framework, the mandate system was intended to be a temporary measure, a means by which colonial territories could be guided towards self-governance and eventual independence. However, the reality on the ground often diverged from these lofty ideals.

For Namibia, the transition from German to South African control brought about complex challenges. The aspirations of the indigenous populations for self-determination and representation clashed with South Africa’s interests in territorial control and resource exploitation. The ensuing years witnessed a struggle for agency and voice, as Namibian communities sought to assert their rights and chart their own destinies. This period was marked by tensions, resistance, and negotiations, ultimately leading to a protracted struggle for independence that would span several decades.

In hindsight, the establishment of South Africa’s rule over Namibia serves as a poignant reminder of the complexities inherent in the decolonization process and the intricate interplay between global politics, regional dynamics, and the aspirations of local populations. It underscores the evolving nature of power and sovereignty in the aftermath of conflict, and it highlights the enduring legacy of this historical chapter in shaping the modern identity and aspirations of both Namibia and South Africa.

In 1919 the treaty of Versailles gave powers to South Africa to control Namibia as a mandated territory on behalf of the
League of Nations.


What were the effects of the Pedi resistance?

  • The Pedi were defeated in these wars of resistance.
  • Sekukuni surrendered and was arrested by the whites to released him later in 1881
  • Sekukuni was replaced by his Brother Mampuru in 1882
  • He was later killed by his brother with the help of whites.
  • The economy of Transvaal was weakened as it was costly
  • It increased British interference in the affairs of Transvaal.

  • The Pedi lost their impendence to the British.
  • Led to massive loss of lives
  • Property was destroyed.
  • Pedi lost more of their cattle to the whites.
  • Many people were displaced
  • The Pedi were divided
  • Pend lost their land
  • Paved way for other rebellions in south Africa
  • Massive suffering and misery was registered on the side of
    the Pedi.


How was Shaka able to build and maintain a powerful Zulu state?

  • Shaka was able to build and maintain the Zulu state by carrying out reforms in the political, social and economic aspects of the Zulu state.

  • Shaka introduced a standing army. His worriers were always ready to defend the state.
  • Shaka replaced the traditional throwing spear with a short stabbing spear. The short stabbing spear was more effective in hand-to-hand fighting compared to the long throwing spear which left the warrior armless upon throwing it.
  • Shaka employed the scorched earth policy whereby he destroyed the enemies’ food and poisoned water sources thus weakening them.
  • Shaka employed cow horn military formation. In this tactic his warrior could encircle the enemy thus defeat them easily
  • There was tough training and drilling to master new methods of fighting by his soldiers
  • He forbade his soldiers from getting married until they had reached the age of 40 years.
  • Soldiers discharged from active service in the army after the age of 40 formed a reserve army that could be called upon to defend the kingdom whenever the need arouse.

  • Shaka strengthened his army by absorbing young men of the conquered territories into his force.
  • Shaka’s warriors did not carry their own luggage. Boys were employed to carry the luggage such that soldiers could move easily and swiftly while fighting.
  • Shaka employed spies who reported on the strength of the enemy’s side. This help to know how, where and when to strike the enemy.
  • Shaka used the religion as an instrument of nation building. He made himself the chief priest and persecuted other religious leaders.
  • Shaka abolished the traditional custom of the circumcision which affected the youth at the time they were needed to defend their state.
  • Shaka introduced a class of medicine men who treated the wounded soldiers.
  • He replaced the Dingiswayo’s small shields with big ones. The warriors would be protected from enemies’ spears.
  • Military Indunas were not allowed to hold meetings without the consent of Shaka.
  • Shaka replace the traditional councils of chiefs with military commanders called Indunas.

The chiefs of the conquered territories were either replaced by Shaka’s nominees or had to pay allegiance to Shaka.

Shaka abolished the wearing of sandals by his forces this made their movements swift.

Shaka encouraged trade and friendship with the British

Shaka also promotes agriculture to ensure ready supply of food in his kingdom.


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