Why did Seyid Said transfer his capital (operational base) from Muscat to Zanzibar in 1840?

  • Zanzibar supported his effort to capture Mombasa.
  • Zanzibar was good and pleasant, with a good climate, unlike Muscat, which was hot and dry.

  • Zanzibar had good (deep-water) harbors in which ships could anchor. Her water was also clean.
  • He wanted to control Indian Ocean trade and the towns of the east African coast.
  • Zanzibar‟s position was convenient for trade with the mainland and with Mombasa.
  • Zanzibar’s good climate and fertile soil favored the cultivation of cloves, which were used as spices.
  • Being an island, Zanzibar assured the Oman Arabs of protection


the communities in East Africa which participated in the long distance trade in the 19th century. .

  • The Akamba,
  • Mijikenda,
  • Nyamwezi,
  • Khartoumers,
  • Waswahili,
  • Yao,
  • Arabs
  • Baganda.

What led to the decline of Akamba dominance in Long Distance trade?

  • Loss of trading partners such as the Aembu and the Agikuyu due to Oromo raids.
  • British colonization, which undermined the trade.
  • Abolition of the slave trade, due to which the main item of exchange (slaves) was lost.

  • Attacks by the Maasai and Oromo on the trade routes.
  • Competition from Arab and Swahili traders, who penetrated the interior to get goods from the sources.

How did the British establish themselves at the Cape in south africa?

When the French invaded the Netherlands in 1793 during the Napoleonic wars, William V, king of Holland asked Britain to protect the Dutch colonies including the cape.

The British occupation of South Africa was by force in order to break the Dutch resistance.

On 11th/June/1795, the British expedition under Sir George Heith Elphistone captured and occupied the cape.

The British troops were under the command of Major General Sir James Henry Craig.

Sir George presented a document to the cape governor which had a former order of acceptance of the British occupation.

On 17th/Aug/1795 the British continued to attack the Boer troops at Muizenberg as they retreated to Weisberg.

The British General Clarke attacked Weisberg with 3000 troops and disorganized the Dutch forces.

By 14th/Sept, the British had occupied nearly the whole of the cape.

The cape governor sent two representatives to sign the treaty to end the war. This treaty was signed on 16th/Sept/1795.

By the treaty the British flag replaced the Dutch Flag at the cape.

But this first occupation was short lived and no serious reforms were introduced by the British.

In 1802, France and Britain restored peace among themselves by signing the treaty of Amiens of 17th/03/1802.

By the terms of the treaty, Britain was to withdraw from the cape and the French to leave Holland.

From 1803 – 1805, the cape was thus under the Batavian republic a new name Holland had assumed after the change
of government

In 1806, France violated the treaty of Amiens by re- occupying Netherlands. This put the British interest at cape
in danger.

In 1806 the British administration sent 61 worships under the command of General David Bairds and re-occupied the cape.

Although the troops occupied the cape in 1806, Britain did into acquire it formally not until 1814.

Therefore the Vienna settlement of 1815 clearly documented and gave Britain a go ahead to officially occupy the cape.


Reasons for the formation of the League of Nations in 1920

The League of Nations was established by the victors of the First World War in 1920 at the treaty of Versailles with the main aim of preventing the occurrence of another war.

The idea of its formation was mooted by Woodrow Wilson, the US president who was supported by Lord Robert Cecil of Britain, Jan Smuts of South Africa and Leon Bourgeois of France.

Reasons for the formation of the League of Nations in 1920

  • It was formed for the Maintenance of world peace / It was specifically created to prevent the outbreak of another world war
  • The League of Nations was meant to foster international cooperation in solving problems as they arise.
  • It was formed to jointly take instant action against an agreed aggressor by economic and possibly by military means.

  • Members were to secure and maintain fair and humane conditions of labour as one way of maintaining peace in the world.
  • It was formed to oversee development of territories lost to central powers during the First World War. E.g. Tanganyika, Togo, South West Africa etc.



the following were results or effects of world war one

  • Nationalist movements in Asia and Africa grew in strength and number after the war and a sense of patriotism arose.
  • USA gained an upper hand in the post war European affairs. She emerged as a leading world power.

  • German military capability was reduced on land and sea and heavy indemnity imposed on her. She lost all her colonies, which were made mandated territories of the League of Nations.
  • The end of the war marked the beginning of the decline of western imperialism. As early as 1920, there was a possibility of independence for colonial countries. The war encouraged imperial powers to give more freedom to their subjects.
  •  The end of the war witnessed the creation of new states e.g. Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Finland.
  • Germany and Italy fell in the hands of dictators e.g. Mussolini and Hitler.
  • The war Created bitter feelings and mistrust among the countries that fought in the war. This continued until the outbreak of the Second World War.
  • It led to the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 in Russia as radicals took over government there.

  • It led to a change of government in Britain.
  • There was greater use of motor vehicles and aircraft, which facilitated transport.
  • The art of surgery improved.
  • Between 1914 and 1918, European factories were destroyed and business brought down hence heavy losses.
  • There was massive destruction of property and infrastructure.
  • It led to the great depression 1920 to 1921, which affected economies worldwide.
  • It led to increased taxation by he colonial authorities to meet war and post-war demands.


The reasons for establishment of economic and social council in kenya

the following are reasons for the establishment of the Economic and Social Council in Kenya.

  • To advise the national government and Parliament on matters of economic and social concern to the people of the Republic.
  • To advise the national government on the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of strategic economic and social policies.
  • To consider and report to Parliament on the economic and social implications of all Bills and budgetary proposals introduced in Parliament.
  • To monitor progress in the improvement of the living standards of the people of Kenya, particularly those of the poor and the disadvantaged.