Here are ten potential ways to improve small scale agriculture:

  • Diversify crops: Planting a variety of crops can help protect against pests and diseases and can also provide a steadier income throughout the year.
  • Use sustainable farming practices: This can include using organic fertilizers, implementing crop rotation, and conserving water.

  • Invest in new technology: There are many new technologies, such as precision irrigation systems and weather monitoring systems, that can help small farmers improve efficiency and productivity.
  • Improve storage and transportation infrastructure: Poor storage and transportation can lead to significant losses for small farmers. Improving infrastructure in these areas can help farmers get a better price for their crops.
  • Join a cooperative: Cooperatives can help small farmers negotiate better prices and access credit and other resources.
  • Invest in education and training: Small farmers can benefit from learning new techniques and best practices to improve their operations.
  • Improve access to credit: Small farmers often struggle to access credit, which can limit their ability to invest in their operations. Programs and policies that increase access to credit can be helpful.
  • Provide extension services: Extension services, which provide farmers with information and support, can be especially helpful for small farmers who may not have access to the latest research and techniques.

  • Develop value-added products: Small farmers can increase their income by processing raw products into value-added goods, such as jams and pickles.
  • Promote fair trade: Fair trade certification can help small farmers get a fair price for their crops and can also increase consumer demand for their products.



Presence of pests and diseases like tsetse flies, ticks, rinderpest, nagana, foot and mouth disease, rift valley fever, etc. that affect very many animals and reduces the output or expected profits.

Severe desert conditions like low unreliable rainfall and prolonged drought leading to shortage of open surface water and pasture

  • Limited open surface water particularly in the South leading to over dependency on underground water that lowers the water table.
  • Desert vegetation is not very nutritious hence poor and insufficient for the animals
  • Some farmers have persisted in the traditional way of rearing animals which limits expansion of livestock ranching
  • Limited land for animal grazing due to increasing competition for land in respect to settlement and other economic activities.
  • Limited animal husbandry facilities to provide the necessary veterinary services and extension works
  • The new breeds are not very adaptive to the desert environment causing health problems and poor quality livestock products.
  • Limited market due to competition from other dairy farmers in Brazil, Texas, Arizona, Argentina, Norway and other sources of proteins like fish, beans, etc
  • Perishability of the livestock products leading to wastage and loss
  • Sparse vegetation cover bringing about soil erosion that washes away the topsoil and brings about tough coarse non-nutritious grass

  • Very expensive to manage the ranches because the animals require intensive care to harvest good quality products