## Outline four merits of using compound bar graph

Using a compound bar graph, also known as a stacked bar graph, offers several advantages for data visualization and analysis. Here are four merits of using a compound bar graph:

• Comparison of Total and Sub-Group Values: A compound bar graph allows for easy comparison of both the total values and the individual sub-group values within a data set. By stacking the segments, the graph provides a clear visual representation of how each sub-group contributes to the total value. This makes it convenient to identify the largest and smallest categories, as well as observe the proportional distribution of each sub-group.
• Visualization of Part-to-Whole Relationships: The stacked structure of a compound bar graph visually depicts the part-to-whole relationships within the data. Each segment represents a specific category or sub-group, and the overall height or length of the bar represents the total value. This allows viewers to quickly understand the relative proportions and contributions of each category to the whole. It is especially useful when comparing data sets with multiple sub-groups or categories.
• Display of Composition or Breakdown: Compound bar graphs are effective in displaying the composition or breakdown of a data set. By representing different sub-groups as segments of the bar, the graph provides a visual breakdown of how the data is distributed among categories. This helps to highlight the relative importance or contribution of each category and facilitates the interpretation of complex data sets.

• Easy Identification of Patterns and Trends: The visual nature of compound bar graphs makes it easier to identify patterns, trends, and comparisons within the data. By visually stacking the segments, the graph allows viewers to quickly identify changes in the distribution of categories over time or across different variables. This facilitates the analysis of data and helps in making informed decisions or drawing meaningful insights.

Overall, compound bar graphs provide a visually appealing and intuitive way to represent data with multiple categories or sub-groups. They enhance the understanding of part-to-whole relationships, enable comparisons, highlight compositions, and facilitate the identification of patterns and trends within the data.

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## Disadvantages of using the divided circle method in data representation

• Difficult to accurately compare values: It can be challenging to accurately compare the sizes of the divided segments in a divided circle, especially when the differences in values are small. It may lead to misinterpretation or difficulty in understanding the relative proportions.

• Limited space for data: Divided circles can become crowded and visually complex when representing a large number of categories or values. It becomes increasingly challenging to label the segments or provide additional information within the limited space.
• Less precise measurement: Divided circles are not as precise as other graphical representations like bar graphs or pie charts. It is difficult to measure or estimate the exact values of each segment, making it less suitable for precise data analysis.
• Limited visual comparison: Divided circles may not provide a clear visual comparison between different categories or values, especially when there are many segments. It can be challenging to identify the largest or smallest segments accurately.
• Inability to display trends over time: Divided circles are not suitable for displaying trends over time or comparing data from different time periods. They are more appropriate for representing a snapshot of data at a specific point in time.

Overall, while divided circles can be visually appealing, they have limitations in accurately representing and analyzing data, particularly when compared to other graphical methods such as bar graphs or pie charts.

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## 5 ADVANTAGES OF A LINE GRAPH IN REPRESENTING STATISTICAL DATA

A line graph is a type of chart that uses lines to connect points to show how data changes over time. The points are usually plotted on a coordinate plane, with the x-axis representing the time or independent variable and the y-axis representing the data or dependent variable.

Line graphs are a versatile tool that can be used to visualize a wide variety of data. They are often used to track changes in population, economic indicators, weather patterns, and other phenomena.

## The following are advantages of line graph to represent statistical data

### Easy to draw

Line graphs are relatively easy to draw, even for people who are not familiar with graphing techniques. This makes them a good choice for people who want to create their own graphs to represent statistical data.

### Allow comparison

Line graphs can be used to compare two or more sets of data by plotting the data points for each set on the same graph. This makes it easy to see how the data sets are related to each other and to identify any trends or patterns.

### Easy to read and interpret

Line graphs are also easy to read and interpret. The data points are plotted on a grid, which makes it easy to see the values of the data and to identify any changes in the data over time. The lines connecting the data points can also be used to visualize trends or patterns in the data.

### Clear visual impression

Line graphs can create a clear visual impression of the data. This makes them a good choice for presentations or reports where you want to communicate the data in a way that is easy to understand.

### Can be used to show wide range of data

Line graphs can be used to show a wide range of data, from small changes to large changes. This makes them a versatile tool that can be used to represent a variety of statistical data.

### To show trends over time

Line graphs are a great way to show how data changes over time. This can be useful for tracking things like population growth, economic growth, or the spread of a disease.

For example, a line graph could be used to show the number of people living in Tanzania over time. The graph would start with the number of people in 1961 and then show how the number has changed each year since then. This would allow you to see the overall trend in population growth, as well as any spikes or dips.

### To show the relationship between two or more variables

Line graphs can also be used to show the relationship between two or more variables. This can be useful for understanding how different factors affect each other.

For example, a line graph could be used to show the relationship between the price of gasoline and the number of miles driven. The graph would show how the price of gasoline has changed over time, and how the number of miles driven has changed over time. This would allow you to see how the two variables are related to each other.

### To show comparisons between different groups of data

Line graphs can also be used to show comparisons between different groups of data. This can be useful for understanding how different groups are performing or how they are different from each other.

For example, a line graph could be used to show the average income of different countries over time. The graph would show how the average income has changed in each country, and how the countries compare to each other. This would allow you to see which countries are doing well economically and which countries are struggling.

### To show the distribution of data

Line graphs can also be used to show the distribution of data. This can be useful for understanding how data is spread out and where the most common values are.

For example, a line graph could be used to show the distribution of heights in a population. The graph would show how many people are of each height, and how the heights are distributed. This would allow you to see what the average height is and how many people are taller or shorter than average.

### To show the impact of changes in one variable on another variable

Line graphs can also be used to show the impact of changes in one variable on another variable. This can be useful for understanding how one factor affects another.

For example, a line graph could be used to show the impact of a new policy on the number of people who are unemployed. The graph would show how the number of unemployed people has changed since the policy was implemented. This would allow you to see whether the policy has had the desired effect.

These are just a few of the advantages of using a line graph in representing statistical data. Line graphs are a versatile tool that can be used to visualize data in a variety of ways. When used correctly, they can be a powerful tool for understanding and communicating data.

## Here are some additional things to keep in mind when using line graphs:

• Choose the right scale: The scale of the line graph should be appropriate for the data that you are plotting. If the scale is too small, the changes in the data will be difficult to see. If the scale is too large, the graph will be cluttered and difficult to read.
• Use clear labels: The labels on the axes of the line graph should be clear and concise. They should also be consistent with the units of measurement that are being used.
• Use a legend: If you are plotting multiple lines on the same graph, you should use a legend to identify each line. This will help the reader to understand what each line represents.
• Use a title: The title of the line graph should be clear and concise. It should also accurately describe the data that is being plotted.

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A pie chart or circle chart is a circular statistical chart graph, which is divided into slices to illustrate numerical proportions.

While it is named for its resemblances to a pie which have been sliced, there is a variation in the way it can be presented.

• display relative proportions of multiple classes of data.

• summarize a large data set into visual form.
• pie charts are easily understood due to its widespread use in business and media
• pie charts permit a visual check of the reasonableness or accuracy of the calculation.
• pie charts are visually simpler than other types of graphs.
• size of the circle can be made proportional to the quantity it represents.

• it does not easily reveal exact values. Values are expressed in terms of percentages or ratio therefore it is not easy to know the exact value represented

• the pie chart does not easily show changes over time
• pie charts fail to reveal key assumptions, causes, effects, or patterns
• pie charts can easily be manipulated to yield false impressions

## ACSEE NECTA 2014 GEOGRAPHY PAPER ONE PAST PAPER

1. a)   differentiate the following statistical concept;
•        Inferential statistics and descriptive statistics

b) the form five students’ scores in geography subject at Nganza s.s were as follows

•  Calculate standard deviation
•   What are disadvantages of grouped data?

2. a) Explain the types of vertical aerial photographs

b) Describe why aerial photographs appear difficult in interpretation.

a)      distinguish the following research concepts ·

• research proposal and research report. ·
• Qualitative research and quantitative research ·
• Data collection and data analysis ·
• Population and sample

3. Describe five causes of plate tectonics movement and prove its existence by providing four pieces of evidence.

4. Explain the values of volcanism for the development of the society. Give eight points.

5. To what extent is river basin development both advantageous and disastrous?

6. Describe the factors that control the global distribution of plant communities.

7. Analyses six properties to be considered when studying soil profile at the field