Problems facing dairy farming in Kenya

  • Stiff competition from imported milk and milk products and from alternative land uses e.g. horticulture, tea and coffee
  • High incidences of pests and diseases e.g. ticks, foot and mouth, rinderpest that reduce the quality of dairy cattle thus low milk yield

  • High costs of farm inputs has limited and minimized the mechanization of the dairy farms.
  • Poor management of dairy cooperatives results to misappropriation of funds leading to delayed payments that lowers the farmers’ initiatives.
  • Prolonged and abrupt droughts that lower the quality/quantity of pasture resulting to low yields.
  • Poor roads that is impassable during the rainy season. This leads to delays in delivery of milk to the creameries


intensive commercial farming is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on a small piece of land using scientific and modern methods of farming leading to high production. it is mostly practiced in densely populated countries, near urban centres. example of intensive commercial farming includes horticulture farming and market gardening.

The following are characteristics of intensive commercial farming

The following are characteristics of intensive commercial farming

  • land is not allowed to rest because of population pressure
  • they use labour intensive technology because of small plots
  • fertilizers are used in this system
  • they grow cereals and annual crops

  • they rear animals for milk and its products which are perishable therefore they need good transport.
  • they use supplementary feed from factories for livestock (factory farming). Since the aim of intensive commercial farming is to farm for profit, the farmers use food from factories to fatten their livestock in order to increase yields and subsequently profit
  • crops and animals are for commercial purpose. Unlike subsistence farming commercial farming aim at rearing of animals and crop cultivation for profit instead of domestic use
  • farms are small that is 3 to 6 hectares because of increased population density. Intensive commercial farming is practised in areas of high population pressure or limited land therefore the plots of farms are small

  • production per unit area is high because of using modern and scientific method of farming. In intensive commercial farming a substantive amount of capital is injected in the farm to facilitate high yield this leads to high productivity



Dairy farming is a major agricultural activity in Kenya. The country is home to an estimated 13 million dairy cows, which produce over 5 billion liters of milk per year.

Dairy farming is an important source of income for many Kenyans. It provides jobs for over 2 million people and contributes significantly to the country’s economy.

There are two main types of dairy farming in Kenya: smallholder dairy farming and commercial dairy farming.

Smallholder dairy farming: Smallholder dairy farming is the most common type of dairy farming in Kenya. It is characterized by small-scale operations, with farmers owning a few cows. Smallholder dairy farmers typically sell their milk to local markets or processors.

Commercial dairy farming: Commercial dairy farming is less common in Kenya, but it is growing in importance. Commercial dairy farms are larger-scale operations, with farmers owning hundreds or even thousands of cows. Commercial dairy farmers typically sell their milk to large-scale processors or exporters

The following are physical conditions that favour dairy farming in Kenya

Gentle sloping or undulating landscape

Dairy cows are large animals and require a lot of space to graze. A gentle sloping or undulating landscape provides the cows with enough space to move around and graze without damaging the land. The land should also be well-drained to prevent waterlogging, which can lead to hoof rot and other health problems in cows.

Well-drained soils

Dairy cows produce a lot of manure, which can pollute water if it is not properly disposed of. Well-drained soils help to prevent manure from contaminating water supplies. The soils should also be fertile to support the growth of grass and other forage crops that cows eat.

Moderate temperature (10-30) cool condition

Dairy cows are comfortable in a moderate temperature range of 10-30 degrees Celsius. Temperatures that are too hot or too cold can stress the cows and lead to decreased milk production.

Moderate to high rainfall (500 – 2000 mm)

Dairy cows need regular access to water. A moderate to high rainfall helps to ensure that there is enough water for the cows to drink and for the crops that they eat to grow. However, too much rainfall can also be a problem, as it can lead to flooding and waterlogging.

Reliable supply of water

Dairy cows need a constant supply of clean, fresh water. This is especially important during hot weather, when cows need to drink more water to stay cool. Kenya has a reliable supply of water from rivers, lakes, and boreholes. However, in some areas, water may be scarce during the dry season.

Improved managerial skills

Dairy farming is a complex business that requires good management skills. Farmers need to know how to feed, care for, and breed their cows in order to produce milk efficiently. They also need to know how to market their milk and manage their finances. There are a number of training programs available to help farmers improve their managerial skills.

The presence of exotic breeds that tolerate diseases and grow fast

Exotic breeds of dairy cows are often better suited to the conditions in Kenya than local breeds. These breeds are often more resistant to diseases and they can grow faster. However, they can also be more expensive to buy and maintain.

Presence of affordable veterinary services

Dairy cows are susceptible to a number of diseases, so it is important to have access to affordable veterinary services. There are a number of government and private veterinary services available in Kenya.

Adequate extension services

Extension services can provide farmers with information and advice on how to improve their dairy farming practices. There are a number of government and non-government extension services available in Kenya.

Presence of nutritious pasture

Kenya has a diverse range of climates and vegetation, which allows for the growth of a variety of grasses and other forage crops that are suitable for dairy cows. The most important grasses for dairy farming in Kenya are Napier grass, Rhodes grass, and elephant grass. These grasses are high in protein and energy, and they can be grown on a variety of soils and under a variety of conditions.

Use of high-quality fodders

Kenya has a diverse climate, which allows for the growth of a variety of fodder crops. These crops include maize, wheat, barley, oats, and legumes. These fodder crops are high in nutrients and can provide the cows with the energy and protein they need to produce milk.

A large market for dairy products

Kenya has a growing population, which is creating a demand for dairy products. The country also has a strong export market for dairy products, such as milk, cheese, and butter.



Dairy farming is a system of rearing cattle for milk and milk products.

Farmers in both Kenya and Denmark involve themselves in dairy farming but there are notable differences in how they conduct dairy farming.

The following are ways in which dairy farming in Kenya is different from dairy farming in Denmark:         

  • In Kenya, cattle mainly depend on natural growing grass/pasture whereas in Denmark the cattle is fed on fodder and commercial feeds 
  • In Kenya mechanization is limited/mainly labour intensive whereas in Denmark mechanization is widely used 
  • In Kenya, most farmers practice mixed farming while in Denmark dairy farming is highly specialized 
  • In Kenya, most of the dairy products are consumed by the domestic market  
  • In Kenya, dairy production is affected by variation in a climate wherein in Denmark, dairy farming is least affected by variations in climate 
  • In Kenya, the dairy cooperative movement is less developed whereas In Denmark cooperative movement is highly developed 

  • In Kenya, artificial insemination/extension services is limited to a few farms whereas in Den mark artificial insemination /extension services are widely used
  • In Kenya animals graze outdoors throughout the year whereas in Denmark animals are kept in doors during winter;
  • In Kenya research is limited whereas in Denmark research is extensive; 
  • In Kenya, Dairy farming is mainly practiced in the high lands whereas in Denmark is found throughout the country.