The following are Factors favoring high population growth rate in Africa:

  • Limited use of family planning methods.
  • Many people don’t use family planning methods that’s why end up with many children. This leads to high population growth rate. 
  • Decrease in death rate: There is improvement in the general levels of living, improvement in level of education of people, and improvement in the health services with increase in the number of hospitals, dispensaries and health centers, increase on the number of Doctors and nurses and other health personnel hence decrease in death rate leading to rapid growth of population. 
  • Old-age insurance: Children are considered as insurance for a good life in old ages by their parents, for that they produce more children in order to insure themselves.  

  • High infant mortality rate: Parents produce many children in Africa because of not being sure of the number of children who can survive. To avoid unwanted surprises they produce more, some die and other survive.  
  • Cultural believes for large families: Children are sources of prestige in some societies. Many people produce many children for prestigious reasons.  
  • Early marriage: Women marry at a younger age leading to a longer fertility period and more children are produced leading to rapid growth of population.
  • Religion. Some religions preach to people not to use family planning methods to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Not using family planning results into unwanted pregnancies that lead to rapid growth of population.

causes of high death rate in Africa:

  • Insufficient health facilities like hospitals, health centers and dispensaries with enough care
  • There is rapid increase in population but social services and infrastructures have not increased to match the population growth
  • Political instability and insecurity. Many countries of Africa are engaged into war and insecurity is common in those countries hence loss of lives which lead to decrease on the number of population. Example of some countries of Africa includes Sudan, DRCongo, Maghreb, etc.
  • Low levels of Immunization. Children get infected with infant killer diseases leading to increase in the death rate of young children.
  • Poverty, Many people die because cannot afford to buy requirements of life like drugs and food. The cost of life is high than the revenue of many African people living under poverty.

  • Ignorance. Lack of enough information on health care like reproductive health that leads to death of many people.



Urban growth is the increase in the number of people living in urban areas. It is a global phenomenon that is driven by a number of factors, including economic growth, industrialization, and climate change.

Urban growth can have a number of positive and negative impacts. On the one hand, it can lead to economic growth, job creation, and improved infrastructure. On the other hand, it can also lead to congestion, pollution, and social problems.

A fast rate of population growth is a situation where the population of a country or region is increasing at a rapid pace. This can happen for a number of reasons, including:

  • High birth rates: If the number of births in a country or region is significantly higher than the number of deaths, then the population will grow rapidly.
  • Low death rates: If the number of deaths in a country or region is significantly lower than the number of births, then the population will also grow rapidly.
  • Inflow of migrants: If a country or region experiences a large influx of migrants, then the population will also grow rapidly.

The population can be higher in particular areas due to the availability of social services, (food, shelter, hospital), good economic activities, agriculture, trade, good infrastructure, climatic condition.

When the population is high, it can cause the following effect on the environment.


Soil erosion

This is because when the population grows high, it leads to expansion of settlement and residence because they will need to build houses which involves digging the land for setting the foundation of the houses.


when the population is higher it leads to the expansion of settlement and residence. That people will cut trees in order to create space and for building.

Loss of biodiversity

This is due to risky human activities that endanger the life of living organisms for instance using chemicals in agriculture and fishing and deforestation also causes biodiversity.


this is a condition where the land is bare that it allows the sun to heat directly on the land since there is no land cover’

Air pollution

since the number of people increasing on the environment improve industrialization. That will produce a large amount of gases.