Dangers of over depending on the exportation of agricultural products and their solutions

The following are the dangers of over depending on the exportation of agricultural products

  • Price fluctuations on the world market cause unstable export earnings, hence reducing government earnings.
  • Agricultural products fetch low prices on the world market, which discourages farmers from growing crops for export.
  • Losses because of poor storage facilities, which reduce on the quality and quantity for export.

  • Agricultural products are seasonal and therefore can’t be relied on for a constant supply for export.
  • Most farmers are reluctant or have inadequate capital to adopt modern agricultural methods for export production.
  • Most agricultural areas are inaccessible which limits quick delivery for exportation.
Dangers of over depending on the exportation of agricultural products
  • Agricultural products are prone to climatic hazards e.g. hailstorms and long drought cause fluctuation of products for export.
  • Pests attack the crops leading to a reduction in quantity for export which reduces foreign exchange earnings.

  • Disease outbreaks also attack the crops leading to poor quality output which reduces market demand.
  • They are perishable and therefore require air transport which is expensive to transport to foreign markets for export.
  • Agricultural products are bulky and therefore difficult to handle for export.

Steps taken to solve the problems of overdependence on agricultural products for exportation

  • Widening the export market base by investing in market research and creation of new trade partners.
  • Reviving co-operative societies to improve on marketing of agricultural products for export.
  • Encouraging scientific research to improve on the quality and quantity of agricultural exports.
  • Improving handling and packaging of perishable agricultural export crops through reviving marketing boards and co-operatives.
  • Using pesticides and herbicides to control pests and diseases to improve on quality and quantity of export crops
Steps taken to solve the problems of overdependence on agricultural products for exportation
  • Encouraging the government to promote economic diversification to offer an alternative to the agro-based economy.
  • Liberalization of the economy to encourage private investment in the economy to foster economic development.

  • Diversification of the export sector and encourage exportation of other commodities e.g. timber, fish and minerals.
  • Developing export promotion industries to export manufactured goods with high market demand.
  • Promotion of tourism as an invisible export to bring in more foreign exchange for national development.
  • Promotion of exportation of services e.g. banking, transport, labour, education to widen tax base for government.
  • Educating and sensitizing the masses about the dangers of over-reliance on agriculture and offer alternatives for survival.
  • Exporting art and craft products to offer an alternative export item.
Steps taken to solve the problems of overdependence on agricultural products for exportation



Cotton in Uganda It is grown in Gulu, Lira, Soroti, Tororo, Oyam, Dokolo, Amolatar, Kaberamaido, Iganga, Kasese, Apac and Kamuli.

In Kenya, it is grown in the Nyanza province near Kisumu and Bungoma.

In Tanzania, it is grown near Tabora, Kondoa region and in Sukuma land


Uses of cotton

  • Used to make animal feeds e.g. cattle cake.
  • Cotton seeds are used for extraction of oil for cooking.
  • Used for manufacture of textiles and garments.
  • Cotton wool is used for dressing wounds in hospitals.
  • Cotton seeds are crushed and used to make soap


Tobacco is a commercial non-food plant that is consumed by smoking and by chewing.

It’s used in the manufacturing of cigarettes.

It’s widely grown in the West Nile region of Uganda e.g. Arua, Adjumani, Nebbi, Yumbe, and Moyo.

Other areas where it’s grown in Uganda include; Kiryandongo, Nakasongola, Kigezi, Bushenyi, Wakiso, Mubende, Masindi, Oyam, and in Soroti.

In Tanzania, it’s grown around the Urambo area within the Miombo woodlands, Tabora, Songea, and Iringa.

In Kenya, it’s grown in Kikuyu land e.g. Nyeri and Nyahururu, and also near Eldoret, Kitale, Nakuru, and Limuru.

The following are the conditions for tobacco farming

  • Warm temperatures of between 13-27°C for proper maturity of the crop.
  • An average altitude of between 900-1500m above sea level for proper growth.
  • Light and well-drained fertile sandy-loamy soils for the growing of the crop.
  • Moderate rainfall of about 380-500mm needed in the first 31/2 months for the growing of the crop.

  • Warm and moist conditions during the ripening and harvesting period.
  • Gently sloping and extensive land for growing the crop.
  • Abundant and cheap labour force needed for planting, weeding, spraying and harvesting of the crop.
  • Protection from strong winds by practicing agro-forestry.
  • Alternate spraying to control pests and diseases e.g. aphids and leaf rust.
  • Adequate capital needed for buying fertilizers, pesticides and farm implements.
  • Presence of ready market which is both local and international to buy the crop.



intensive commercial farming is the growing of crops and rearing of animals on a small piece of land using scientific and modern methods of farming leading to high production. it is mostly practiced in densely populated countries, near urban centres. example of intensive commercial farming includes horticulture farming and market gardening.

The following are characteristics of intensive commercial farming

The following are characteristics of intensive commercial farming

  • land is not allowed to rest because of population pressure
  • they use labour intensive technology because of small plots
  • fertilizers are used in this system
  • they grow cereals and annual crops

  • they rear animals for milk and its products which are perishable therefore they need good transport.
  • they use supplementary feed from factories for livestock (factory farming). Since the aim of intensive commercial farming is to farm for profit, the farmers use food from factories to fatten their livestock in order to increase yields and subsequently profit
  • crops and animals are for commercial purpose. Unlike subsistence farming commercial farming aim at rearing of animals and crop cultivation for profit instead of domestic use
  • farms are small that is 3 to 6 hectares because of increased population density. Intensive commercial farming is practised in areas of high population pressure or limited land therefore the plots of farms are small

  • production per unit area is high because of using modern and scientific method of farming. In intensive commercial farming a substantive amount of capital is injected in the farm to facilitate high yield this leads to high productivity



 Irrigation is the artificial supply of water to support plant growth in areas that have insufficient rainfall. Irrigation is either permanent or temporary, and it is carried out in areas that have insufficient rainfall and where flooding is common.

Under irrigation, the extra amount of water needed depends on the type of crop grown, the prevailing temperature and humidity, the kind of soil, and other conditions in the area.

The following are the advantages of irrigation:

Regular and Reliable Water Supply

Irrigation provides a consistent and dependable water supply for agricultural purposes. Unlike relying solely on rainfall, which can be sporadic and unreliable, irrigation systems allow farmers to have better control over water availability. This regularity is essential for maintaining crops’ health, growth, and yield. By having a predictable water source, farmers can effectively plan their planting, growing, and harvesting schedules, leading to more stable food production and reduced risks of crop failure due to droughts or insufficient rainfall.

2. Year-Round Cultivation

Irrigation enables year-round cultivation, breaking the dependence on the seasonal availability of rainfall. This is particularly advantageous in regions where the rainy season is short. With controlled water supply, farmers can extend growing seasons beyond the natural rain-dependent periods. This maximizes land utilization and increases agricultural productivity, leading to multiple harvests per year. Year-round cultivation also provides greater flexibility for planting different crop varieties and optimizing crop rotation practices, which can contribute to soil fertility and pest management.

3. Salinity Reduction in Desert Areas

In desert regions where water is scarce and soil salinity is a concern, irrigation offers a solution. The continuous flow of water through the soil helps to leach excess salts, reducing soil salinity over time. This process, known as leaching, prevents the buildup of harmful salts that can hinder plant growth and degrade soil quality. By maintaining an adequate and consistent water supply through irrigation, farmers can make previously inhospitable desert areas agriculturally viable, ultimately improving food security and expanding arable land.

4. Multi-Purpose Dam Benefits

Modern multi-purpose dams have transformed irrigation and water management practices. These dams serve not only as water reservoirs for irrigation but also offer a range of additional benefits. They aid in flood control by regulating water flow during periods of heavy rainfall, preventing destructive floods. Dams generate hydroelectricity, providing a renewable energy source to communities. Furthermore, they enhance river navigability, facilitating transportation and trade. The integration of these functions maximizes the utility of water resources and supports sustainable development in regions where water is a valuable commodity.

5. Enhanced Soil Fertility Through Silt Deposition

During flooding, rivers carry nutrient-rich silt downstream. When rivers are used for irrigation, this silt is deposited onto fields, enriching the soil with essential minerals and organic matter. This process enhances soil fertility, promoting healthier plant growth and higher crop yields. The silt deposition contributes to a gradual improvement in soil structure, water retention, and nutrient availability. As a result, farmers can achieve better agricultural productivity with less reliance on external fertilizers, leading to economic and environmental benefits.

In summary, irrigation offers a range of advantages that contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity, reduced risks, and improved resource management. These benefits are particularly crucial in regions facing water scarcity, unpredictable rainfall patterns, or challenging environmental conditions. By harnessing the power of controlled water supply, irrigation empowers farmers to overcome these challenges and cultivate crops more efficiently and sustainably.



Agriculture is the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of animals to provide food, wool, and other products

The following are factors that influence agriculture

Human factors

  • Levels of education and technology 
  • Health – HIV/AIDS and health in general 
  • Economy (include liberalization) 
  • Transport and communication 
  • Market forces (local and international) 
  • Government policy.
  • Cultural and religious beliefs.

Biotic Factors

  • Pests 
  • Parasites 
  • Decomposers 
  • Pathogens 
  • Predators 
  • Pollinators 
  • Nitrogen fixing bacteria

Climatic Factors

  • Rainfall intensity, reliability, quantity and distribution