• Improving irrigation infrastructure: The availability of water for irrigation is a major challenge for Indian agriculture. Many regions in the country are prone to drought, and farmers often rely on rainwater for their crops. Improving irrigation infrastructure, such as building dams and canals, can help provide a consistent and reliable source of water for agriculture.

  • Investing in research and development: Indian agriculture needs to invest in research and development to improve crop productivity and adapt to changing climate conditions. This includes investing in new technologies, such as genetically modified seeds, and conducting research on sustainable farming practices.
  • Addressing the issue of soil degradation: Soil degradation is a major problem facing Indian agriculture, as it reduces the productivity of crops and affects their quality. This can be addressed by implementing sustainable farming practices, such as using organic fertilizers and reducing the use of chemical pesticides.
  • Providing credit and insurance to farmers: Many farmers in India face difficulties in accessing credit and insurance to support their agricultural activities. Providing these financial services can help farmers manage risks and invest in their farms, leading to increased productivity and income.
  • Improving market access and infrastructure: Indian farmers often face challenges in accessing markets for their produce, due to inadequate transportation and storage infrastructure. Improving market access and infrastructure, such as building roads and cold storage facilities, can help farmers sell their products at fair prices and reduce post-harvest losses.

  • Enhancing farmer education and training: Many farmers in India lack the knowledge and skills to adopt new technologies and farming practices. Providing education and training programs can help farmers improve their knowledge and expertise, leading to increased productivity and income.
  • Promoting sustainable agriculture: Indian agriculture needs to shift towards sustainable practices, such as organic farming and conservation agriculture, to protect the environment and reduce the impact of climate change. This can be achieved through policies and programs that support sustainable agriculture, such as providing incentives for farmers to adopt sustainable practices.
  • Strengthening rural institutions: Rural institutions, such as cooperatives and farmer associations, play a crucial role in supporting the development of agriculture in India. Strengthening these institutions, through capacity building and financial support, can help farmers access markets, credit, and other services, leading to increased productivity and income.



  • Lack of access to modern technology: Many farmers in India still rely on traditional farming methods and lack access to modern technology, such as genetically modified seeds, irrigation systems, and mechanized equipment. This limits their productivity and profitability.

  • Poor infrastructure: India’s rural infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and storage facilities, is inadequate and often in disrepair. This makes it difficult for farmers to transport their produce to markets and to store it properly, leading to wastage and losses.
  • Inadequate government support: The Indian government’s support for the agriculture sector has been inadequate, with insufficient funding and policies that often do not prioritize the needs of farmers. This has led to a lack of investment in the sector and a lack of support for farmers to access new technologies and markets.
  • Climate change: Climate change is a major threat to agriculture in India, with unpredictable weather patterns, extreme weather events, and water scarcity all impacting crop yields. Farmers need support to adapt to these changes and to implement sustainable farming practices.
  • Pest and disease outbreaks: Pest and disease outbreaks are a common problem in Indian agriculture, with crops such as rice, cotton, and wheat being particularly vulnerable. Farmers need support to combat these outbreaks, including access to effective pesticides and other control measures.
  • Land degradation: Overuse of pesticides, poor irrigation practices, and soil erosion are all contributing to land degradation in India. This has led to lower crop yields and reduced productivity, and farmers need support to implement sustainable land management practices.
  • Market access: Many Indian farmers face barriers to accessing markets, including lack of information on prices and market trends, lack of infrastructure, and lack of access to credit and financing. This makes it difficult for them to compete in the market and to maximize their profits.

  • Debt: Many Indian farmers are trapped in a cycle of debt, with high levels of borrowing to finance their farming operations and high interest rates on loans. This makes it difficult for them to invest in their farms and to increase their productivity, and can lead to a spiral of debt and financial insecurity.



  • Water scarcity: One of the major problems facing irrigation farming in India is the scarcity of water. The country is home to more than a billion people, and the demand for water is increasing with the growth of population and urbanization. The availability of water for irrigation is limited, and many farmers are dependent on monsoon rains for their crops. However, the erratic nature of monsoons can lead to droughts and water shortages, affecting the productivity of crops.

  • Groundwater depletion: Another major problem is the depletion of groundwater. The over-extraction of groundwater for irrigation has led to a significant decline in the water table, resulting in less water available for irrigation. This has also led to the depletion of aquifers, which are the underground water sources that provide water for irrigation.
  • Poor irrigation infrastructure: The irrigation infrastructure in India is inadequate and outdated. Many farmers still rely on traditional irrigation methods such as flooding, which are inefficient and lead to water wastage. This results in lower productivity and lower incomes for farmers.
  • High cost of irrigation: Irrigation is an expensive process, and the cost of irrigation has been increasing in recent years. This has made it difficult for farmers to afford irrigation systems, leading to a decline in the adoption of modern irrigation techniques.
  • Pollution: Irrigation farming has also contributed to water pollution. The use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals has led to the contamination of water sources, which has negative impacts on human health and the environment.

  • Lack of proper water management: Poor water management is another problem facing irrigation farming in India. There is a lack of coordination among different agencies and departments responsible for managing water resources, leading to conflicts and inefficiency.
  • Climate change: Climate change is also impacting irrigation farming in India. The changing rainfall patterns, rising temperatures, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events have had negative effects on crop yields and the availability of water for irrigation.
  • Inadequate support and policies: The government of India has not provided adequate support and policies for irrigation farming. The lack of investment in irrigation infrastructure, research, and extension services has limited the potential of irrigation farming in India.



Presence of pests and diseases like tsetse flies, ticks, rinderpest, nagana, foot and mouth disease, rift valley fever, etc. that affect very many animals and reduces the output or expected profits.

Severe desert conditions like low unreliable rainfall and prolonged drought leading to shortage of open surface water and pasture

  • Limited open surface water particularly in the South leading to over dependency on underground water that lowers the water table.
  • Desert vegetation is not very nutritious hence poor and insufficient for the animals
  • Some farmers have persisted in the traditional way of rearing animals which limits expansion of livestock ranching
  • Limited land for animal grazing due to increasing competition for land in respect to settlement and other economic activities.
  • Limited animal husbandry facilities to provide the necessary veterinary services and extension works
  • The new breeds are not very adaptive to the desert environment causing health problems and poor quality livestock products.
  • Limited market due to competition from other dairy farmers in Brazil, Texas, Arizona, Argentina, Norway and other sources of proteins like fish, beans, etc
  • Perishability of the livestock products leading to wastage and loss
  • Sparse vegetation cover bringing about soil erosion that washes away the topsoil and brings about tough coarse non-nutritious grass

  • Very expensive to manage the ranches because the animals require intensive care to harvest good quality products



Price fluctuation/ instability refers to the sudden changes that occur in the price of agricultural products. Prices of agricultural products often rise and fall erratically.

Why do you think the price of agricultural products flactuates?

a) Agricultural products are perishable which forces farmers to sell them immediately after harvesting at low price.

b) Bulkiness of agricultural products which makes their transportation from areas of plenty to areas of scarcity difficult.

c) Poor transport network which makes delivery of products from production areas to consumption areas difficult.

d) Natural hazards such as pests, disease, and drought which lower output,

e) Lack of farming groups such as co-operatives to increase bargaining power for better prices.

f) Variable quality of products which leads to variable prices.

g) Inadequate storage facilities which forces farmers to sell produce when prices are still low.

h) Seasonality of produce which causes prices to fall at harvesting time due to surplus of produce and rise in price after harvesting due to scarcity,

i) Competition from synthetic products which are cheaper forcing the farmer to lower prices
of agricultural products,

j) Large number of small scale producers who individually cannot influence market prices.



Mixed farming Is the practice of growing crops and rearing of animals on the same farm at the same time

Advantages of mixed farming

  • When a crop fails or prices fluctuate the farmer can depend on livestock and vice versa.
  • The farmer gets income continually. Since animal rearing is conducted through out the year the farmer income remain stable unlike when the farmer engages on crop production alone where his income increase immediately after selling his produce and drops after harvesting period is over.
  • Income is larger. Combinations of income from selling crop harvest and animal products in larger as compared to crop farming alone or animal rearing alone
Advantages of mixed farming
  • The farmer is busy throughout the year. After harvesting the farmer concentrate on rearing animals this ensure reliable income to the farmer
  • Using crop residue as fodder saves money for buying it. Without crop residue the farmer may be required to buy fodder from external suppliers which may cost a lot of money, therefore by using crop residue the farmer saves money which in turn may be used to improve other aspects of his life

  • Using manure from animals ensures sustained crop production and also saves money that would be used to buy manure. Animal manure which is considered as one of the most sustainable source of nutrients to plants help the farmer increase his yields and saves farmers money to buy fertilizers and saved money can be used to improve other aspects of farmer’s life.
Using manure from animals ensures sustained crop production and also saves money that would be used to buy manure. Animal manure which is considered as one of the most sustainable source of nutrients to plants help the farmer increase his yields and saves farmers money to buy fertilizers and saved money can be used to improve other aspects of farmer's life.



  • It adds organic matter to the soil and stimulates the activity of soil micro-organisms.
  • It improves the structure of the soil thereby improving the WHC, decreasing run-off, and erosion caused by rain.

  • The green manure takes nutrients from lower layers of the soil and adds to the upper layer in which it is incorporated.
  • It is a leguminous crop, it fixes ‘N’ from the atmosphere and adds to the soil for being used by succeeding crop. Generally, about 2/3 of the N is derived from the atmosphere and the rest from the soil.
  • It increases the availability of certain plant nutrients like P2O5, Ca, Mg and Fe.
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