There are several measures that the Government of India has implemented or is planning to implement to improve agriculture in the country. Some of these measures include:

  • Providing financial support to farmers through schemes such as the Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi, which provides financial assistance to small and marginal farmers to help them meet their agricultural expenses.
  • Implementing the National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities and improve the marketing and pricing of agricultural products.
  • Increasing investment in research and development to improve agricultural productivity and sustainability.
  • Providing incentives and support for the adoption of modern farming techniques and technologies, such as drip irrigation and precision agriculture.
  • Promoting the use of organic farming practices and increasing the availability of organic fertilizers and pesticides.

  • Providing support for the development of post-harvest infrastructure, such as storage facilities, cold chains, and processing units, to reduce wastage and improve the quality and value of agricultural products.
  • Supporting the growth of the dairy, poultry, and fisheries sectors to increase income and employment opportunities for farmers.
  • Implementing policies and programs to promote the growth of agricultural exports and improve market access for Indian agricultural products.
  • Providing affordable and accessible credit to farmers to help them meet their financial needs and invest in their farms.
  • Strengthening the implementation of existing laws and policies to protect the rights and interests of farmers and promote equitable and sustainable agricultural development.



  • Improving irrigation infrastructure: The availability of water for irrigation is a major challenge for Indian agriculture. Many regions in the country are prone to drought, and farmers often rely on rainwater for their crops. Improving irrigation infrastructure, such as building dams and canals, can help provide a consistent and reliable source of water for agriculture.

  • Investing in research and development: Indian agriculture needs to invest in research and development to improve crop productivity and adapt to changing climate conditions. This includes investing in new technologies, such as genetically modified seeds, and conducting research on sustainable farming practices.
  • Addressing the issue of soil degradation: Soil degradation is a major problem facing Indian agriculture, as it reduces the productivity of crops and affects their quality. This can be addressed by implementing sustainable farming practices, such as using organic fertilizers and reducing the use of chemical pesticides.
  • Providing credit and insurance to farmers: Many farmers in India face difficulties in accessing credit and insurance to support their agricultural activities. Providing these financial services can help farmers manage risks and invest in their farms, leading to increased productivity and income.
  • Improving market access and infrastructure: Indian farmers often face challenges in accessing markets for their produce, due to inadequate transportation and storage infrastructure. Improving market access and infrastructure, such as building roads and cold storage facilities, can help farmers sell their products at fair prices and reduce post-harvest losses.

  • Enhancing farmer education and training: Many farmers in India lack the knowledge and skills to adopt new technologies and farming practices. Providing education and training programs can help farmers improve their knowledge and expertise, leading to increased productivity and income.
  • Promoting sustainable agriculture: Indian agriculture needs to shift towards sustainable practices, such as organic farming and conservation agriculture, to protect the environment and reduce the impact of climate change. This can be achieved through policies and programs that support sustainable agriculture, such as providing incentives for farmers to adopt sustainable practices.
  • Strengthening rural institutions: Rural institutions, such as cooperatives and farmer associations, play a crucial role in supporting the development of agriculture in India. Strengthening these institutions, through capacity building and financial support, can help farmers access markets, credit, and other services, leading to increased productivity and income.



  • Lack of access to modern technology: Many farmers in India still rely on traditional farming methods and lack access to modern technology, such as genetically modified seeds, irrigation systems, and mechanized equipment. This limits their productivity and profitability.

  • Poor infrastructure: India’s rural infrastructure, including roads, bridges, and storage facilities, is inadequate and often in disrepair. This makes it difficult for farmers to transport their produce to markets and to store it properly, leading to wastage and losses.
  • Inadequate government support: The Indian government’s support for the agriculture sector has been inadequate, with insufficient funding and policies that often do not prioritize the needs of farmers. This has led to a lack of investment in the sector and a lack of support for farmers to access new technologies and markets.
  • Climate change: Climate change is a major threat to agriculture in India, with unpredictable weather patterns, extreme weather events, and water scarcity all impacting crop yields. Farmers need support to adapt to these changes and to implement sustainable farming practices.
  • Pest and disease outbreaks: Pest and disease outbreaks are a common problem in Indian agriculture, with crops such as rice, cotton, and wheat being particularly vulnerable. Farmers need support to combat these outbreaks, including access to effective pesticides and other control measures.
  • Land degradation: Overuse of pesticides, poor irrigation practices, and soil erosion are all contributing to land degradation in India. This has led to lower crop yields and reduced productivity, and farmers need support to implement sustainable land management practices.
  • Market access: Many Indian farmers face barriers to accessing markets, including lack of information on prices and market trends, lack of infrastructure, and lack of access to credit and financing. This makes it difficult for them to compete in the market and to maximize their profits.

  • Debt: Many Indian farmers are trapped in a cycle of debt, with high levels of borrowing to finance their farming operations and high interest rates on loans. This makes it difficult for them to invest in their farms and to increase their productivity, and can lead to a spiral of debt and financial insecurity.



Agriculture is an important industry in India and plays a significant role in the country’s economy. Here are ten reasons why agriculture is important in India:

  • Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for a majority of the population in India.
  • Agriculture provides food and raw materials for industries, such as textiles, sugar, and edible oils.
  • Agricultural products are a significant source of foreign exchange for India through exports.
  • The agriculture sector is a key driver of rural development and helps reduce rural-urban migration.
  • Agriculture plays a vital role in maintaining the ecological balance and preserving natural resources.
  • The agriculture sector provides employment opportunities in rural areas, helping to reduce unemployment and improve the standard of living.
  • The government provides various support measures, such as subsidies and credit facilities, to boost the agriculture sector.
  • Modern agricultural practices, such as the use of technology and improved seed varieties, can increase crop productivity and improve the income of farmers.

  • Agriculture plays a crucial role in ensuring food security for the country’s growing population.
  • The agriculture sector contributes significantly to the overall GDP of India.



  • Water scarcity: One of the major problems facing irrigation farming in India is the scarcity of water. The country is home to more than a billion people, and the demand for water is increasing with the growth of population and urbanization. The availability of water for irrigation is limited, and many farmers are dependent on monsoon rains for their crops. However, the erratic nature of monsoons can lead to droughts and water shortages, affecting the productivity of crops.

  • Groundwater depletion: Another major problem is the depletion of groundwater. The over-extraction of groundwater for irrigation has led to a significant decline in the water table, resulting in less water available for irrigation. This has also led to the depletion of aquifers, which are the underground water sources that provide water for irrigation.
  • Poor irrigation infrastructure: The irrigation infrastructure in India is inadequate and outdated. Many farmers still rely on traditional irrigation methods such as flooding, which are inefficient and lead to water wastage. This results in lower productivity and lower incomes for farmers.
  • High cost of irrigation: Irrigation is an expensive process, and the cost of irrigation has been increasing in recent years. This has made it difficult for farmers to afford irrigation systems, leading to a decline in the adoption of modern irrigation techniques.
  • Pollution: Irrigation farming has also contributed to water pollution. The use of pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals has led to the contamination of water sources, which has negative impacts on human health and the environment.

  • Lack of proper water management: Poor water management is another problem facing irrigation farming in India. There is a lack of coordination among different agencies and departments responsible for managing water resources, leading to conflicts and inefficiency.
  • Climate change: Climate change is also impacting irrigation farming in India. The changing rainfall patterns, rising temperatures, and increasing frequency of extreme weather events have had negative effects on crop yields and the availability of water for irrigation.
  • Inadequate support and policies: The government of India has not provided adequate support and policies for irrigation farming. The lack of investment in irrigation infrastructure, research, and extension services has limited the potential of irrigation farming in India.


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