Factors favoring the development of diamond mining at Mwadui in Tanzania

Diamonds are mined at Williamson Diamond mines at Mwadui located 27km from Shinyanga town.

Formation of diamond

The diamonds at Mwadui are found in a Kimberlite rock which was formed in an intrusive rock of Magma which solidified in a Vent or pipe to form a volcanic plug. Later, this intrusion was exposed by erosion.

Mining of diamond

The opencast method is used because the mineral-bearing rock is found just below the surface of the earth.

Heavy excavators scrape off the surface of the earth hence exposing the ore-bearing rocks.

These rocks are then loaded onto waiting trucks and then taken to the factory where the rocks are crushed to small sizes.

Processing of diamond

  • From the mining zone, the ore bearing rocks are taken by trucks to the crushing plant where the rocks are crushed to small sizes and then poured on a conveyor belt which transports it to the treatment plant.

  • At the treatment plant, the ore is passed through separators. The diamond and some other heavy substances because of being dense, sink to the bottom while the remaining materials float as wastes.
  • For further cleaning, the diamonds are further passed over belts covered with grease to which they stick. The wastes are removed electrically.
  • The diamond is then cleaned to remove all the grease and itÂ’s then ready for use e.g. making jewellery.

Factors favoring the development of diamond mining at Mwadui

  • The diamonds are found near the earth surface hence cheap to exploit using open cast method.
  • Diamonds at Mwadui are found in large deposits hence economic to mine.

  • Mwadui diamonds are of high quality and on high demand on the international market.
  • The landscape is generally flat hence easy to extract the minerals.
  • Easy accessibility due to the presence of transport network by the railway and roads.
  • Availability of adequate capital for investment provided by both the Williamson mining company and government.
  • Nearness to agricultural land which provides foodstuffs to the workers.
  • Availability of abundant skilled manpower both local and foreign expatriates to work in the mines.

  • Presence of a variety of energy sources e.g. hydro electric power used in mining and processing minerals.
  • Availability of modern technology used in the mining operations.
  • Supportive government policy which encourages mining e.g. through investment and market research.



Mining is the extraction of natural resources from the earth’s crust for economical use

Importance of mining to East Africa

Governments earn foreign exchange used for national development through the exportation of minerals to other countries.

East Africa is rich in mineral resources, including gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt, and tin. These minerals are exported to other countries, which earns the governments of East Africa foreign exchange. Foreign exchange is used to purchase goods and services from other countries, which can help to promote economic development.

For example, the government of Tanzania earns about $2 billion per year from the export of minerals. This money is used to fund development projects, such as roads, schools, and hospitals.

Governments earn revenue by taxing the workers within the mining sector used for the development of infrastructure e.g. roads.

In addition to exporting minerals, governments in East Africa also earn revenue by taxing the workers in the mining sector. This revenue can be used to fund the development of infrastructure, such as roads, railways, and airports.

For example, the government of Kenya collects about $100 million per year in taxes from the mining sector. This money is used to fund road construction and maintenance projects.

It has led to the development of urban centers e.g. Tororo, Kasese, Mombasa and Kakamega hence promoting regional balance.

The mining sector has led to the development of urban centers in East Africa. This is because mining companies need to build infrastructure, such as roads, housing, and schools, to attract and retain workers. These urban centers also provide services to the surrounding areas, which can help to promote regional balance.

For example, the town of Tororo in Uganda has grown rapidly due to the mining of copper and cobalt. The town now has a population of over 100,000 people and is a major economic hub in the region.

Creation of employment opportunities for the people which boosts their standards of living e.g. engineers.

The mining sector is a major source of employment in East Africa. It employs millions of people, including engineers, geologists, miners, and support staff. These jobs provide a much-needed source of income for people in the region and can help to boost their standards of living.

For example, the mining sector in Tanzania employs about 1 million people. This is a significant number of jobs, especially in a country with a high unemployment rate.

It leads to the development of infrastructures e.g. schools and hospitals which lead to urbanization.

The mining sector can also lead to the development of infrastructure, such as schools and hospitals. This is because mining companies need to provide these services to their employees and their families. These developments can lead to urbanization, as people move to the area to take advantage of the new opportunities.

For example, the mining company AngloGold Ashanti has built a school and a hospital in the town of Geita in Tanzania. These facilities have improved the quality of life for the people in the area and have attracted more people to the town.

Improvement of international relations through trade which promotes world peace e.g. between Japan and Uganda.

The mining sector can also improve international relations through trade. This is because minerals are traded internationally, which can bring countries together. For example, Japan imports minerals from Uganda, which helps to promote trade between the two countries. This can lead to improved relations and peace between the two countries.

This leads to the diversification of the economy which increases government revenue and ensures constant capital inflow.

The mining sector can also help to diversify the economy of East Africa. This is because it is a source of income that is not dependent on agriculture. A diversified economy is less vulnerable to shocks, such as droughts or floods.

For example, the mining sector in Tanzania contributes about 10% of the country’s GDP. This diversification helps to ensure that the country’s economy is not overly reliant on agriculture.

Overall, the mining sector is an important contributor to the economy of East Africa. It provides jobs, generates revenue, and helps to improve infrastructure and living standards. The mining sector can also help to improve international relations and promote peace.

It leads to the development of industries that process the minerals leading to economic diversification e.g. Tororo cement industry.

Mining can lead to the development of industries that process the minerals, which can lead to economic diversification. This is because the processing of minerals creates new jobs and businesses, which can help to reduce dependence on a single industry. For example, the Tororo Cement Industry in Uganda processes limestone, which is a mineral that is mined in the country. The industry employs over 1,000 people and generates millions of dollars in revenue each year.

It leads to the development of agriculture through the provision of the market for food from neighbouring communities e.g. in Kasese.

Mining can also lead to the development of agriculture by providing a market for food from neighboring communities. This is because miners need to eat, and they often buy food from local farmers. For example, in Kasese, Uganda, mining has led to the development of a large market for food from neighboring communities. This has helped to improve the incomes of farmers and has also led to the development of new businesses, such as restaurants and hotels.

Roads and railway lines are constructed which lead to easy movement of goods and services.

Mining can also lead to the construction of roads and railways, which can improve the transportation infrastructure in a country. This can make it easier to move goods and services, which can boost economic growth. For example, the construction of the Mombasa-Nairobi railway in Kenya was funded by the profits from the mining industry. The railway has helped to reduce transportation costs and has also made it easier to export goods from Kenya to other countries.

In addition to these economic benefits, mining can also have a number of social and environmental impacts. These impacts can be positive or negative, and they need to be carefully considered before mining projects are approved.

Some of the positive social impacts of mining include:

  • The creation of jobs
  • The provision of infrastructure, such as roads and schools
  • The increase in tax revenue for the government
  • The development of new businesses

Some of the negative social impacts of mining include:

  • The displacement of people from their homes
  • The pollution of water and air
  • The degradation of ecosystems
  • The exploitation of workers

It is important to weigh the positive and negative impacts of mining before approving a project. The decision should be made based on the specific circumstances of the project and the needs of the community.

Overall, mining can be a beneficial activity for East Africa, but it is important to manage it carefully to avoid negative impacts.


Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.

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The following are factors that influence the development of mining sector:

  • Availability of capital to be invested in mining
  • Nature of transport system
  • Availability of labour both skilled and unskilled

  • Nature of the market whether it is good or not
  • Water availability since water is needed for cooling engines of machines and cleaning of minerals
  • Nature of government policy whether it support or discourage mining sector
  • Availability of mineral deposit and their values


Mining is the extraction of minerals occurring on or below the earth’s surface. Mining has a lot of benefits to the economy of any country.

 The following are the advantages of mining to the Tanzanian economy

Employment Opportunities: The mining sector provides direct and indirect employment opportunities for Tanzanians. It creates jobs in various areas such as mining operations, exploration, engineering, logistics, and support services, contributing to reduced unemployment rates and improved livelihoods.

Economic Diversification: Mining contributes to diversifying the Tanzanian economy, reducing its dependence on other sectors. It provides an additional source of income and reduces the vulnerability associated with relying heavily on sectors such as agriculture.

Local Economic Development: Mining operations can stimulate local economic development by creating a demand for goods and services from local businesses. This includes supplying equipment, food, accommodation, transportation, and other support services, which in turn promotes entrepreneurship and economic growth in surrounding communities.

Technology Transfer and Skill Development: Mining activities introduce advanced technologies, machinery, and practices to Tanzania. This transfer of technology helps in building local capacities and skills, improving the technical expertise of Tanzanians in mining-related fields.

Foreign Exchange Earnings: Mining exports, particularly of precious minerals such as gold, diamonds, and gemstones, contribute significantly to Tanzania’s foreign exchange earnings. This helps to stabilize the country’s balance of payments and strengthen its currency.

It lead to development of related industries. these are industries which get their raw materials from mined minerals for example coal mining can lead to development of energy supply industry if will be used to produce electricity.

Social Infrastructure Investment: Mining companies often invest in social infrastructure and community development initiatives. They contribute to the construction of schools, hospitals, water supply systems, and other community facilities, improving the overall well-being of local communities.

It leads to development of towns for example Kahama town in Tanzania have developed due to gold mining taking place in the area

Mining can lead to development of transport and communication network in the mining areas.

Attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): The presence of a robust mining sector in Tanzania attracts foreign investors who bring in capital, expertise, and technology. This helps to stimulate economic growth, create job opportunities, and enhance the overall investment climate in the country.

Revenue Generation: Mining activities generate substantial revenue for the Tanzanian government through taxes, royalties, and other fees. This revenue can be used for infrastructure development, social services, and public welfare programs.

While mining offers numerous advantages to the Tanzanian economy, it is essential to ensure that mining activities are conducted in an environmentally and socially responsible manner, taking into account sustainable practices, community engagement, and environmental protection measures.

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