- Pipeline and containerization
- Electric trains are replacing diesel engines
- Underground tunnels for trains are being used to ease congestion on the surface
- Dual-carriage roads are being developed in various parts to ease congestion and minimize accidents
- Development of planes with larger carrying capacity and speed is a major feature in the transport industry
- Use of bicycles commonly known as bodaboda are a common feature in towns, bus terminals and rural areas, supplementing other means of transport to ferry people and cargo to their destinations. The bicycles are being modified to make them more convenient. It is not unusual to find a bicycle (bodaboda) which has been fitted with facilities such as:
- Motors to increase their speed and reduce energy applied by the cyclist.
- Music systems to entertain passengers and More comfortable seats.
Motor cycles are also being used as bodabodas in various areas. Similarly, the three wheeled vehicles commonly known as ‘Tuk Tuk’ is a major feature in cities and most towns.
- Private personal vehicles with less carrying capacity e.g. four-seater vehicles are being used as matatus. The vehicles are convenient to the passengers as they:
- Fill up within a shorter time compared to larger vehicles
- May accommodate each of the customers interests.
- Passenger vehicles are being fitted with radios, music systems and videos to entertain customers as they travel. However, some forms of entertainment may not be conducive to all.
In order for a transport system to function efficiently it should have certain basic elements. These elements are:
- Unit(S) of carriage
- Methods of propulsion
Unit(S) of carriage
This refers to anything i.e. vessel that is used to transport goods and people from one place to another.
Units of carriage include: ships, trains, aeroplanes, motor vehicles, bicycles and carts. Units of carriage are also referred to as means of transport.
Methods of propulsion
This is the driving force (source of power) that makes a unit of carriage to move.The power for most vessels may be petroleum products, electricity, human force or animal power.
It refers to either the route or path passes by the vessel. The route can be on land, on water or through air. Examples of ways are roads, railways, paths, canals, seaways and airways. The ways can be classified into either natural ways or manmade ways.
- Natural ways-As the name suggests, natural ways are the ways that are provided by nature. They are therefore free to acquire. They include airways and seaways.
- Man-made ways-These are ways that are made available by human being. They include roads, canals and railways. Manmade ways are usually expensive to construct and maintain.
The vessel used to carry goods and people starts from one destination and ends up at another. At these destinations the loading and off-loading take place respectively. The loading and off-loading places are referred to as terminals or terminus. Examples of terminuses are bus stations, airports and seaports.
Transport is the physical movement of people and goods from one place to another. It helps bridge the gap between producers and consumers hence creating place utility.
Importance of Transport to Business
- Bridging the gap between producers and consumers/ linking consumers to producers-Transport links consumers to producers which enable the consumers to obtain the goods they need.
- Employment creation-Transport helps in solving unemployment problem by creating job opportunities. For example, people may be employed as drivers, pilots, mechanics and road constructors.
- Promotes specialization-Transport enables people to specialize in jobs they are best at. For example; producers would concentrate in production only while other people carry out distribution.
- Making goods and services more useful-Through transport goods are moved from a place where they are least required to a place where they are most required thereby making them more useful.
- Improving people’s standard of living-It enables consumers to get a variety of goods and services thereby improving the standards of living.
- Availing a wide market for products-It helps producers to widen the markets for their products by enabling them access to areas they would otherwise not have accessed
- Increased production/ facilitates mass production-Due to the wider market created through transport, producers are able to increase the volume of goods produced.
- Avoiding wastage-Transport makes it possible for surplus goods to be disposed of by taking them to areas where they are required. Perishable goods such as flowers, fruits and vegetables can also be transported fast hence minimizing/ avoiding wastage.
- Promoting development of industries-Through transport, raw materials can be taken to manufacturing industries and also finished goods to the market. Similarly, it promotes development of service industries such as tourism.
- Adds value to goods and services- creates utility in goods by moving them from the point of production to where they are needed thereby adding their value.
- Leads to the opening of new markets- Goods and services can be taken to new areas with ease.
- It facilitates the movement of labour- people can easily move from where they stay to where they work