Rural-urban migration has got both positive and negative effects on both rural areas and urban areas. These include;

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  • It has resulted into depopulation of rural areas causing a negative effect on agricultural development since movement includes escaping of energetic men and women.
  • It has resulted into rapid growth of urban areas; however this has got problems such as slum growth, un-employment, high crime rate, poor sanitation.
  • It has resulted into racial ethnicity diversity which leads to racial conflicts and tension like in central region. This is because movement involves all kinds of citizens.
  • It has resulted into intermarriages between tribes which has led to loss of traditional values and culture. This has increased on immoralities and sexual abuse
  • Since rural urban migration increases population in towns, this puts government to task to provide social infrastructure like water, health, education, security, which may drain government budget.
  • Rural urban migration may lead to famine due to the decline in agriculture since the energetic men and women who would have facilitated agricultural development in rural areas moved to towns.
  • It increases encroachment on wetlands and swamps in cities in search for land for settlement. This later result into floods and disease outbreak like
  • Rural urban migration leads to traffic and human congestion in urban areas and this causes delays especially during rush hours and easy disease spread.

  • Positively, rural urban migration is an important source of labour especially unskilled in urban centres. Such labour is used for industrial development.
  • Rural urban migration leads to land consolidation in rural areas and useful utilization of the available resources by the remaining people in villages.



  • SUDAN has earned foreign exchange in form of invisible export from thousands of tourists who visit the country from Europe, Asia and from other continents due to her tourist potentials. Such income has been used to rehabilitate roads, set up heath units, etc.

  • The industry has provided employment opportunities to many people of SUDAN such as those working in Hotel like Serena, tour and travel agencies, game guides. This has earned income to workers and thus improved standards of living.
  • It has led to conservation of wildlife of flora and fauna through gazetting and restricting of areas. this has helped to modify SUDAN’s climate by forests and protecting her heritage for future generation.
  • Tourism facilitates the development of important infrastructure such as air field, health units, lodges for tourist accommodation. These have led to the development of SUDAN.
  • It has promoted and reflected the cultural heritage of SUDAN i.e. historical sites, museums, cultural sites, all protect SUDAN’s image abroad.
  • Tourism has led to development of the craft industry and agricultural sector through providing market to the products of such sectors. This means provision of more jobs and income from craft industry thus improved living standards of people of SUDAN.
  • Tourism has led to diversification of SUDAN’s economy from over dependence on the agricultural sector. This has resulted into increased foreign exchange used to set up schools and health centers thus SUDAN’s development.
  • It has improved on international relationship between Uganda and the countries like Norway, Germany and Britain, where tourists come from. This has helped SUDAN to become politically stable.

  • Training of skilled man power like hotel attendants, game guides, etc.
  • Government revenue through taxing tourist transport companies, tourists hotels, etc.
  • Growth of urban centers
  • Promoted environmental conservation through forest reserves, gazzetting of national parks.
  • It has promoted education and research in botany and zoology.



  • Inadequate capital to inset in the industrial sector local investors depend on basic provision from the government and foreign aid and grants which may not be adequate or has too high interest rates.
  • Most industrial suffer from inconsistency in the supply of raw materials due to fluctuation in output especially agricultural raw materials, industries dependent on natural raw materials, e.g. minerals suffer shortage when the mineral deposits decline

  • Most industries face the problem of limited market due to the fact that much of the population is unemployed hence has low purchasing power.
  • The country faces inadequate managerial skills which result in mismanagement and embezzlement of funds and unnecessary spending.
  • There is the problem of poor transport and communication which hinder transportation of raw materials to factories and industrial goods to the market.
  • The country faces the problem of insufficient and expensive power supply which hinders industrial development especially in the rural areas.
  • Some industrial in SUDAN face stiff competition from industrial nations whose products have a big competitive edge over those from the country.



Importance of nomadic pastoralism to the economy of SUDAN

  • Source of human food with valuable proteins e.g. milk, meat/beef, and blood.
  • It is a source of income to the pastoralists by selling farm products hence improving their standards of living.
  • It is a source of employment e.g. through trade hence providing a livelihood for many people.
  • It is a source of government revenue for setting up roads through taxing livestock transporters and dairy factories.
  • The government earns foreign exchange used for setting up hospitals by exporting animal products e.g. hides and skins.
  • It has helped to diversify the economy of SUDAN hence ensuring constant capital inflow and reduced dependency on crop growing.

  • Nomadic pastoralism has provided raw materials for industries that provide jobs e.g. meat packers and the leather tanning industry.
  • It has helped to put idle land into use hence reducing resource wastage
  • Animals are used as beasts of burden e.g. for transport and for pulling ox-plows hence promoting farming.
  • Animal wastes are used as a source of fuel e.g. cow dung is used for bio-gas hence offering alternative sources of energy.

  • Source of wealth for social and economic status e.g. bridewealth hence promoting cultural conservation.  

Nomadic pastoralism is still practiced by a number of communities in SUDAN

Nomadic pastoralism is one of the major economic activities in SUDAN, however, governments are pushing for the modern way of rearing battles to protect the environment and enable the pastoralists to generate more income



  • Perennial/Gravity- here the canals, ditches, channels are dug linking up the farm land to the water source flowing into the irrigation areas with a natural flow
  • Archimedian screw- a water pipe is fastened on a motor-like stand with a perforated coil on top. The acceleration pressure of the water determines the spreading of water in the cultivable land.
  • Overhead lining- a perforated pipe is elevated higher than the basic crop height and well distributed in the irrigation land. When the water is released, it finds its way into the farmland through the outlets on the raised pipe.


  • Between July and October- planting and weeding due to rainfall received in the region for cotton, dura sorghum, millet, Rubia beans, vegetables, ground nuts, etc
  • Between November and January- irrigating the land due to the dry season where water is extracted from the river and distributed in the cultivable land. However, sorghum is harvested together with canal dredging
  • Between February and April- the harvesting season for mainly cotton is done by the Fellahins with some migrant labor. The cotton is then transported to ginneries at Barakat, Hasa-Heisa and Marangani for processing and export
  • Between May and June- a fallow period where land is given rest to regain its natural fertility and resume planting in July


  • To control flooding, especially on the Blue Nile due to heavy rains in the Ethiopian highlands
  • To expand cultivable land
  • To ensure all year-round crop production in a desert land
  • To diversify the agricultural sector from cotton to rice, millet, sorghum, wheat, ground nuts, etc
  • To promote and provide employment to the nomadic Fellahins.
  • To improve on the pastoral life of the Fellahins by practicing crop cultivation
  • To invest the surplus capital from the oil exploitation thus engaging in plantation farming
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