• Failure of the relations among the heads of state e.g. Amin conflicted with Nyerere due to the 1971 coup and Nyerere vowed never to sit with Amin on the same table.

  • The EAA- the top body of heads of states failed to meet with the rise of Amin.
  • The member states failed to respect the principle of regional economic cooperation and adopted protectionism i.e. not allowing other goods to flow from other countries.
  • The member states failed to expand the membership and yet this had been proposed.
  • The EAC leadership failed to control the bickering among the heads of states e.g. Amin, Nyerere and Kenyatta.
  • Failure to control neo – colonialism
  • Failure to ensure even and balanced distribution of the benefits e.g. Kenya was
    progressing at a faster rate.
  • Failure to punish and reprimand members who failed to pay up their subscriptions e.g.
    Uganda and Tanzania.

  • Economic nationalism and duplication of industries e.g. Uganda had to specialize in
    sugar industry, but Kenya also started, other countries like Uganda and Tanzania began
    producing tyres and set up plants meant for Kenya, lack of harmony in tax policies by 1974 etc.
  • Failure to control corruption in the set up corporations.
  • Member states failed to establish a uniform currency. There was nationalization of the currencies and it presented a problem to members in different countries to purchase products due to failure to accept money as legal tenders
  • Failure to control individualism and prestige of heads of state regarding appointments. Squabbles came up over appointments and expulsions of Kenyans from Tanzania. This
    made projects to break up e.g. in 1976, Airways in each country, all wanted to own a
    bank, university and railway than sharing.

  • Failed to stop misunderstandings over the transport sector. This made Tanzania in 1973 to manage its railway system. Kenya was blamed for developing road transport to weaken railway and Tanzania thought of the Tazara railway.



The EAC existed between 1967 and 1977 and within a decade (10 years) it achieved the

  • The body established a common market in the region that in turn promoted regional
    economic development.
  • The EAC established common services in the region. Tanzania became the headquarters of the harbors cooperation in Dar –es – Salaam and headquarters of community at Arusha, Uganda the East African Posts and telecommunications and EADB in Kampala,
    Kenya had the East African Airways and railways in Nairobi hence decentralization
  • The body ensured and promoted regional unity and cooperation among member states. This guaranteed uniform problem solving in East Africa than what existed in the East African federation.
  • Diplomatic relations were equally promoted in the region member states occasionally met to address their regional problems.
  • The body promoted employment opportunities in the corporations set up like the railway, EADB, East African harbors, the EALA, the EAA that raised the standard of living of the people.

  • The EAC harmonized trade and commerce in its initial stages. This was done through the reduction of the trade barriers among the three states.
  • The EAC promoted industrialization in the region. These included the circle and plain aluminium sheets, radio assembly and manufactures of motor – vehicle tyres and tubes in Tanzania, Kenya produced bulbs. These generated local revenue and employment provision.

  • The body established the East African Development Bank (EADB) that promoted
    balanced development. The bank extended loans to member states for setting up projects, provided technical assistance and solicited for financial support from international organizations.
  • The EAC promoted the easy mobility of East African citizens and goods. The
    corporations established encouraged people to work freely in the three countries e.g. the Railways, Airways, industries, EAA, the Bank among others.

  • The community promoted the spirit of Pan African. The Movement advocated for
    regional integrity and this was enshrined in EAC and problems were uniformly solved.
  • The EAC opened room for the incorporation and inclusion of other states to broaden its market like Malawi, Burundi and Rwanda
  • The EAC promoted specialization among member states. This was reflected in the
    projects set up like the industries of fertilizers in Uganda, Electric bulbs in Kenya
    Airways in Kenya and even the agriculturally based projects e.g. sisal for Tanzania,
    pyrethrum in Kenya and coffee in Uganda.
  • The EAC linked the three countries to the world economic systems or organizations.
    These included E.E.C, U.N.O for purposes of comparison and effective implementation and realization of the set objectives.

  • The body established infrastructure in the region these included the East African
    railways, Airlines, roads to promote development as precursors to harness the resources.
  • The body also streamlined education in the region that increased the literacy rate.
    Regional universities were set up e.g. Makerere University in Uganda, Dar – es – Salaam University and Kenyatta University in Kenya. This allowed all people in the region to acquire education in all without restrictions. Also examination boards e.g. EAEC to regulate performance.
  • The EAC tried to harmonize the currency exchange in the region and all were using the shillings. The level of exchange was checked in the initial stages that limited the
  • The body established the East African court of appeal and councils of tribunals. These helped to check on the excesses of the leaders and promote the proper operation of the organization. (pertaining industrial disputes related to staff)

  • The body too promoted the setting up of the East African legislative Assembly. This was composed of the chairperson, the general secretary, ministers from the partner states.
  • Research was promoted in East Africa through the EAC. This was a branch of the council of tribunals that was in charge of finance, communications, common market and planning and coordinated networks from Arusha.
  • The body tried to unify the fiscal policy in East Africa. This was done by the uniform
    customs duties and regulations between the member states.



  • To strengthen political ties between the three countries
  • To promote balanced regional economic development
  • To promote the adoption of a common currency that would ease commercial transactions.
  • To ease the mobility of resources, goods and services and eliminate restrictions.
  • To promote trade among the member states.

  • To expand the market for the goods produced in the region
  • To reduce the duplication of goods and services among the member states.
  • To foster cooperation and unity among the East African states
  • To mobilize financial support from international organizations and fight neo –
  • To safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of East African states



The East African Community was formed/established on 6th June 1967 after signing the Arusha treaty by the heads or presidents Jomo Kenyatta – Kenya, Julius Nyerere – Tanzania, and Milton Obote – Uganda.

It was under the guidance of Kjeld Phillips – a United Nations Professor and expert in
international relations and the treaty came into effect (operation) on 1st December 1967.


The EAC aims to create a common market, facilitate the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital, and promote economic growth and development in the region. It strives to achieve these objectives through various mechanisms and programs, including:

  • Customs Union: The EAC member states have established a customs union, which allows for the free movement of goods within the region. This includes the elimination of tariff barriers and the harmonization of customs procedures.

  • Common Market: The EAC is working towards the establishment of a common market, which seeks to facilitate the free movement of services, labor, and capital within the region. This aims to promote investment, enhance economic opportunities, and create a conducive business environment.
  • Monetary Union: The EAC member states have plans to form a monetary union with a common currency. This would involve the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies to promote stability and facilitate economic integration.
  • Infrastructure Development: The EAC focuses on developing and improving regional infrastructure, including transportation networks, energy systems, and information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity. This aims to enhance regional connectivity, trade facilitation, and economic integration.
  • Sectoral Cooperation: The EAC promotes sectoral cooperation in areas such as agriculture, health, education, tourism, trade, and investment. Member states collaborate on policy development, knowledge sharing, and joint initiatives to address common challenges and harness shared opportunities.

  • Peace and Security: The EAC recognizes the importance of peace and security in the region. It works towards resolving conflicts, promoting stability, and enhancing regional cooperation on security matters. This includes joint efforts in peacekeeping, conflict resolution, and capacity building in security institutions.
  • Political Cooperation: The EAC encourages political dialogue, cooperation, and good governance among member states. It promotes democratic principles, respect for human rights, and the rule of law as fundamental values in the region.

The EAC Secretariat, based in Arusha, Tanzania, serves as the administrative and coordinating body of the organization. Decision-making is carried out through various organs, including the Summit of EAC Heads of State, the Council of Ministers, the Sectoral Councils, and the East African Legislative Assembly.

Through its regional integration efforts, the EAC aims to foster economic growth, enhance competitiveness, and improve the well-being of the people in East Africa. It seeks to create a united and prosperous East African community that promotes cooperation, peace, and shared development among its member states.



  • The rampant outbreak of natural calamities like famine, floods and other epidemics. This compelled the UN and other organizations to take up the mantle of disaster management.
  • Colonial legacy was another obstacle to the OAU. Some African states continued to
    identify with the former colonial masters eg Anglophone and Francophone. This
    undermined decisions of African states.

  • Lack of a common continental language made it difficult for the OAU to promote
    meaningful co-operation.
  • The frequent occurrence of military coups which undermined the work of the OAU in promoting democracy.
  • The presence of dictators in Africa like Mobutu in Congo, Bokassa of CAR, Mengitsu in Ethiopia, Amin in Uganda and Mugabe in Zimbabwe.
  • The OAU was greatly overwhelmed by the growing number of refugees. This presented a burden to the host member countries by sharing the scarce resources.
  • Poorly developed infrastructure between the member states. This limited trade and
    economic cooperation among the member states.
  • Interstate conflicts became a major challenge, ie Uganda vs Tanzania during Amin’s era, Ethiopia and Somalia over Ogaden, Nigeria vs Cameroon.
  • The presence of neo-colonialism hence making African states to attain total
  • The oil crisis of 1973 – 1974 drastically affected the effective operation of OAU, ie made countries to adopt unfair strategies (affected regional economic integration).
  • The failure of the member states of OAU to meet their subscriptions made the work very hard.
  • The frequent outbreak of civil wars in Africa, ie Chad, Congo, Nigeria, Angola, Somalia and Sudan.

  • General illiteracy among the masses of the OAU member states. This undermined the
    effort of fighting poverty, disease and ignorance.
  • Lack of an international peace keeping force of its own/army/high command. This made it impossible to intervene to solve the civil wars and other conflicts of the states.
  • Assassination of prominent African leaders like Samora Machel in 1986, Anwar Sadat in 1981, Amilcar Cabral in 1973, Chris Hani in 1993 etc.
  • Ideological differences during the cold war era. This made countries to adopt capitalism like Kenya and Tanzania communism. This affected uniformity in problem solving.
  • The geographical vastness (size) of the continent. The size of about 12 million square
    miles hindered the effectiveness in promoting political unity and trade in Africa.
  • The heterogeneous nature of the continent was a major obstacle. Very many races, tribes, cultural and ethnic differences. This made unity of purpose very hard.



The area of operation is too big i.e. from the Caribbean, N. America, Europe, West Indies and Africa hence this limited the effective operation of PAM.

  • African societies lacked a fairly developed cash economy that would be used finance the activities of PAM. The African societies therefore were weakened by the European colonial policies.
  • Lack of militant nationalism on the African continent. This was only realized after World War II i.e. by ex-service men and the emergence of intellectuals that attended the MC.
  • Lack of indigenous African political culture of purpose. The Africans were forced to adopt the western political culture like the multi-party politics and disguised democracy which would not solve the African problems but only divided them.
  • The heterogeneous nature of the Africans in terms of race, tribe i.e. Africa has the blacks, coloreds, white and Indians. Also so many languages are spoken on the African continent and with a variety of religious views which can’t foster the gospel of PAM.
  • There was a problem of regionalism in Africa. Nkrumah and Nasser advocated for the integration of all Africans into the United States of Africa as the pioneers of PAM proposed. Others like Azikiwe of Nigeria opposed this and considered smaller groupings hence leading to smaller organizations i.e. EAC, COMESA, SADC and ECOWAS.

  • The impact of civil wars divided the African states and affected unity and cooperation i.e the 1967-1970 Biafra secession, 1960 Katanga secession divided Africans as some countries in Africa were in support of the destruction of those countries.
  • The inter-state and personal rivalries in Africa have dragged down PAM. African leaders were seen supporting the subversive activities of the rebels in different countries and cases in this category include Uganda and Rwanda, being accused of supporting the Nyamurenge to overthrow the government of Laurent kabila.
  • The weaknesses of OAU have impacted negatively of PAM, OAU was never perfect since its inception, it was economically and politically weak, it had no army etc amidst ideological differences.
  • The differences in the level of development among the Africans, stronger economies like Egypt, Ivory Coast and Nigeria were not willing to share their resources with the poor countries like Burundi, Uganda and Mozambique which hampered unity.
  • Bad governance which surrounded the African continent; this was witnessed in the violation of human rights in Uganda under Idi Amin Dada, Mobutu Seseko of Zaire. This was a reflection of colonial oppressive rule of the Europeans on the African continent hence a challenge of PAM.
  • Neo-colonialism has further impacted negatively on PAM. The former colonial masters and the industrialized nations of the world have intensified their materials and this has undermined development which can’t bring about effective economic prosperity as advanced by the pioneers by PAM.

  • The Independent States have been divided along Anglo-phone and Francophone lines, these countries adopted foreign cultures as they have been made vulnerable to the dictates of their former foreign masters instead of addressing their local problems.



  • Pan African Conferences were held in Europe and N. America and Africans from the continent could not attend due to the restrictions from the whites. This limited the exposure of Pan Africanism.

  • PAM lacked support from the few independent African states i.e. Ethiopia and Liberia. This is because these countries were facing internal problems Like Ethiopia between 1935 and 1941 when Italy invaded it making PAM more theoretical than practical.
  • PAM was originally a movement of intellectuals i.e. WEB Dubois, George Pad more, William Sylvester in the Diaspora, therefore, the uneducated peasants were ignored, their ideas were not represented and this undermined the popularity of PAM in its initial stages.
  • The wide spread illiteracy and ignorance on the entire African continent greatly affected PAM by 1945. Africans were largely characterized by few people who would conceive the idea of PAM in its depth and it became difficult to sensitize the masses about the alien (foreign) thing as they claimed.
  • Lack of a propaganda base in Africa before 1945 accounts for the limited impact of PAM. There was no place where Africans would meet to discuss the affairs of their continent until Ghana became independent in 1957 and it provided a base for the movement.

  • The poor infrastructural development in Africa was an inhibiting factor for PAM. Transport and communication was still very poor, under developed and this limited the scale of interaction and dissemination of information about PAM and its objectives.
  • The negative influence of colonial powers in Africa greatly undermined the impact of PAM. The colonialists looked at PAM as sabotage to their stay in Africa that would inspire self rule, therefore this led to the arrest of several nationalists linked to PAM like Nkrumah, Lumumba etc.
  • Low levels of Patriotism, particularly before World War II. It should be noted that many Africans succumbed to colonialism and feared to oppose it hence this limited the operation of PAM in Africa and this was left to the people in the diaspora.
  • Language barrier also made the movement to have less impact on the African continent. Africans lacked a language which the common people would understand as the founders used the language of their colonial masters i.e. from Europe and America, therefore Africans were detached from the body (movement) due to communication incompetence.
  • Ideological differences among the leading personalities of PAM affected its development. It is true that all the founders agreed on aims and objectives of PAM, but often disagreed on the methods of achieve the objectives e..g WEB Dubois was a moderate and believed in peace, advocated for the rights of slaves where as Marcus Garvey was a radical and preferred violence and use of force to achieve independence in Africa. This militated against the development of PAM.

  • PAM before 1945 had been perceived as a brief movement aimed at promoting the interests of the blacks in the diaspora. The native Africans always looked at the movement as an organization of strangers who did not have the original African culture at heart hence it was opposed in the early stages.
  • The black descendants in the new world experienced financial constraints. They lacked adequate resources and work force to spread the idea of Pan- Africanism. This explains why PAM and its activities remained on paper for a long time as the resources were very limited to finance its development.
  • The colonial policies in Africa introduced by the Europeans could not allow PAM to have a leveled ground. These policies divided Africans and groomed politicians who created hatred and bickering. This was very true in the British colonies where divide and rule was practiced, the French and the Portuguese colonies were assimilation policy that took a centre stage hence dividing Africans not to unite.
  • The native Africans of the time were politically backward and ignorant of the rights they were to enjoy. They treated whites as a godly race and therefore it is not surprising that their consciousness took long to be aroused for consolidated unity.


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