The word Ujamaa is Swahili word meaning togetherness. It a modern type of African traditional farming where everyone helps and is helped by a society where they live. It is a voluntary productive society under co-operative system based in social ownership and means of production that is labour, capital and land.

The system was started in Tanzania in 1967 by Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere who was then the president. Under this system the government attempted to change agriculture and make peasants from Ujamaa villages.

By 1975, the government had succeeded in resettling 3.5 million Tanzanians in 7500 villages. This was possible by the aid from the US of $29 million spent on rural improvement, education and literacy programmes management training and bookkeeping.

The villages were engaged in projects like afforestation and re-afforestation, road construction, preparation of new fields and many others.

Before the system was introduced, Tanzania depended on subsistence agriculture with few crops being grown and most of the establishments owned by the German and British. In 1967, Ujama system brought a change in the form of economic and social development and helped to eradicate other problems like inequalities within the local communities, ignorance and poverty as well as exploitation of man which had been encouraged by the colonialists thereby dividing the people.


To establish a self governing community/society for general development of the country.

To organize the efforts of the people more effectively. This was meant to make better use of the rural labour by bringing the scattered people under shifting cultivation together so that they could grow enough food and each crops to improve the economy of the country.

To increase agricultural production by having all means of production under the control of the peasants.

It was also aimed at changing the educational programme in the country through setting up schools and institutes where people could be introduced to the ideas of the Ujamaa system.

To eradicate the exploitation of man as was heavily practiced by the German and the British in the land. To improve on the standards of living of the people through the provision of the social infrastructures like tap water, electricity, roads, hospitals and many others.

To improve the security system of the nation especially within the local community by using villages as part of the military organization.



  • Failure of the relations among the heads of state e.g. Amin conflicted with Nyerere due to the 1971 coup and Nyerere vowed never to sit with Amin on the same table.

  • The EAA- the top body of heads of states failed to meet with the rise of Amin.
  • The member states failed to respect the principle of regional economic cooperation and adopted protectionism i.e. not allowing other goods to flow from other countries.
  • The member states failed to expand the membership and yet this had been proposed.
  • The EAC leadership failed to control the bickering among the heads of states e.g. Amin, Nyerere and Kenyatta.
  • Failure to control neo – colonialism
  • Failure to ensure even and balanced distribution of the benefits e.g. Kenya was
    progressing at a faster rate.
  • Failure to punish and reprimand members who failed to pay up their subscriptions e.g.
    Uganda and Tanzania.

  • Economic nationalism and duplication of industries e.g. Uganda had to specialize in
    sugar industry, but Kenya also started, other countries like Uganda and Tanzania began
    producing tyres and set up plants meant for Kenya, lack of harmony in tax policies by 1974 etc.
  • Failure to control corruption in the set up corporations.
  • Member states failed to establish a uniform currency. There was nationalization of the currencies and it presented a problem to members in different countries to purchase products due to failure to accept money as legal tenders
  • Failure to control individualism and prestige of heads of state regarding appointments. Squabbles came up over appointments and expulsions of Kenyans from Tanzania. This
    made projects to break up e.g. in 1976, Airways in each country, all wanted to own a
    bank, university and railway than sharing.

  • Failed to stop misunderstandings over the transport sector. This made Tanzania in 1973 to manage its railway system. Kenya was blamed for developing road transport to weaken railway and Tanzania thought of the Tazara railway.



The EAC existed between 1967 and 1977 and within a decade (10 years) it achieved the

  • The body established a common market in the region that in turn promoted regional
    economic development.
  • The EAC established common services in the region. Tanzania became the headquarters of the harbors cooperation in Dar –es – Salaam and headquarters of community at Arusha, Uganda the East African Posts and telecommunications and EADB in Kampala,
    Kenya had the East African Airways and railways in Nairobi hence decentralization
  • The body ensured and promoted regional unity and cooperation among member states. This guaranteed uniform problem solving in East Africa than what existed in the East African federation.
  • Diplomatic relations were equally promoted in the region member states occasionally met to address their regional problems.
  • The body promoted employment opportunities in the corporations set up like the railway, EADB, East African harbors, the EALA, the EAA that raised the standard of living of the people.

  • The EAC harmonized trade and commerce in its initial stages. This was done through the reduction of the trade barriers among the three states.
  • The EAC promoted industrialization in the region. These included the circle and plain aluminium sheets, radio assembly and manufactures of motor – vehicle tyres and tubes in Tanzania, Kenya produced bulbs. These generated local revenue and employment provision.

  • The body established the East African Development Bank (EADB) that promoted
    balanced development. The bank extended loans to member states for setting up projects, provided technical assistance and solicited for financial support from international organizations.
  • The EAC promoted the easy mobility of East African citizens and goods. The
    corporations established encouraged people to work freely in the three countries e.g. the Railways, Airways, industries, EAA, the Bank among others.

  • The community promoted the spirit of Pan African. The Movement advocated for
    regional integrity and this was enshrined in EAC and problems were uniformly solved.
  • The EAC opened room for the incorporation and inclusion of other states to broaden its market like Malawi, Burundi and Rwanda
  • The EAC promoted specialization among member states. This was reflected in the
    projects set up like the industries of fertilizers in Uganda, Electric bulbs in Kenya
    Airways in Kenya and even the agriculturally based projects e.g. sisal for Tanzania,
    pyrethrum in Kenya and coffee in Uganda.
  • The EAC linked the three countries to the world economic systems or organizations.
    These included E.E.C, U.N.O for purposes of comparison and effective implementation and realization of the set objectives.

  • The body established infrastructure in the region these included the East African
    railways, Airlines, roads to promote development as precursors to harness the resources.
  • The body also streamlined education in the region that increased the literacy rate.
    Regional universities were set up e.g. Makerere University in Uganda, Dar – es – Salaam University and Kenyatta University in Kenya. This allowed all people in the region to acquire education in all without restrictions. Also examination boards e.g. EAEC to regulate performance.
  • The EAC tried to harmonize the currency exchange in the region and all were using the shillings. The level of exchange was checked in the initial stages that limited the
  • The body established the East African court of appeal and councils of tribunals. These helped to check on the excesses of the leaders and promote the proper operation of the organization. (pertaining industrial disputes related to staff)

  • The body too promoted the setting up of the East African legislative Assembly. This was composed of the chairperson, the general secretary, ministers from the partner states.
  • Research was promoted in East Africa through the EAC. This was a branch of the council of tribunals that was in charge of finance, communications, common market and planning and coordinated networks from Arusha.
  • The body tried to unify the fiscal policy in East Africa. This was done by the uniform
    customs duties and regulations between the member states.



  • To strengthen political ties between the three countries
  • To promote balanced regional economic development
  • To promote the adoption of a common currency that would ease commercial transactions.
  • To ease the mobility of resources, goods and services and eliminate restrictions.
  • To promote trade among the member states.

  • To expand the market for the goods produced in the region
  • To reduce the duplication of goods and services among the member states.
  • To foster cooperation and unity among the East African states
  • To mobilize financial support from international organizations and fight neo –
  • To safeguard the sovereignty and territorial integrity of East African states



The East African Community was formed/established on 6th June 1967 after signing the Arusha treaty by the heads or presidents Jomo Kenyatta – Kenya, Julius Nyerere – Tanzania, and Milton Obote – Uganda.

It was under the guidance of Kjeld Phillips – a United Nations Professor and expert in
international relations and the treaty came into effect (operation) on 1st December 1967.


The EAC aims to create a common market, facilitate the free movement of goods, services, people, and capital, and promote economic growth and development in the region. It strives to achieve these objectives through various mechanisms and programs, including:

  • Customs Union: The EAC member states have established a customs union, which allows for the free movement of goods within the region. This includes the elimination of tariff barriers and the harmonization of customs procedures.

  • Common Market: The EAC is working towards the establishment of a common market, which seeks to facilitate the free movement of services, labor, and capital within the region. This aims to promote investment, enhance economic opportunities, and create a conducive business environment.
  • Monetary Union: The EAC member states have plans to form a monetary union with a common currency. This would involve the coordination of monetary and fiscal policies to promote stability and facilitate economic integration.
  • Infrastructure Development: The EAC focuses on developing and improving regional infrastructure, including transportation networks, energy systems, and information and communication technology (ICT) connectivity. This aims to enhance regional connectivity, trade facilitation, and economic integration.
  • Sectoral Cooperation: The EAC promotes sectoral cooperation in areas such as agriculture, health, education, tourism, trade, and investment. Member states collaborate on policy development, knowledge sharing, and joint initiatives to address common challenges and harness shared opportunities.

  • Peace and Security: The EAC recognizes the importance of peace and security in the region. It works towards resolving conflicts, promoting stability, and enhancing regional cooperation on security matters. This includes joint efforts in peacekeeping, conflict resolution, and capacity building in security institutions.
  • Political Cooperation: The EAC encourages political dialogue, cooperation, and good governance among member states. It promotes democratic principles, respect for human rights, and the rule of law as fundamental values in the region.

The EAC Secretariat, based in Arusha, Tanzania, serves as the administrative and coordinating body of the organization. Decision-making is carried out through various organs, including the Summit of EAC Heads of State, the Council of Ministers, the Sectoral Councils, and the East African Legislative Assembly.

Through its regional integration efforts, the EAC aims to foster economic growth, enhance competitiveness, and improve the well-being of the people in East Africa. It seeks to create a united and prosperous East African community that promotes cooperation, peace, and shared development among its member states.



  • The rampant outbreak of natural calamities like famine, floods and other epidemics. This compelled the UN and other organizations to take up the mantle of disaster management.
  • Colonial legacy was another obstacle to the OAU. Some African states continued to
    identify with the former colonial masters eg Anglophone and Francophone. This
    undermined decisions of African states.

  • Lack of a common continental language made it difficult for the OAU to promote
    meaningful co-operation.
  • The frequent occurrence of military coups which undermined the work of the OAU in promoting democracy.
  • The presence of dictators in Africa like Mobutu in Congo, Bokassa of CAR, Mengitsu in Ethiopia, Amin in Uganda and Mugabe in Zimbabwe.
  • The OAU was greatly overwhelmed by the growing number of refugees. This presented a burden to the host member countries by sharing the scarce resources.
  • Poorly developed infrastructure between the member states. This limited trade and
    economic cooperation among the member states.
  • Interstate conflicts became a major challenge, ie Uganda vs Tanzania during Amin’s era, Ethiopia and Somalia over Ogaden, Nigeria vs Cameroon.
  • The presence of neo-colonialism hence making African states to attain total
  • The oil crisis of 1973 – 1974 drastically affected the effective operation of OAU, ie made countries to adopt unfair strategies (affected regional economic integration).
  • The failure of the member states of OAU to meet their subscriptions made the work very hard.
  • The frequent outbreak of civil wars in Africa, ie Chad, Congo, Nigeria, Angola, Somalia and Sudan.

  • General illiteracy among the masses of the OAU member states. This undermined the
    effort of fighting poverty, disease and ignorance.
  • Lack of an international peace keeping force of its own/army/high command. This made it impossible to intervene to solve the civil wars and other conflicts of the states.
  • Assassination of prominent African leaders like Samora Machel in 1986, Anwar Sadat in 1981, Amilcar Cabral in 1973, Chris Hani in 1993 etc.
  • Ideological differences during the cold war era. This made countries to adopt capitalism like Kenya and Tanzania communism. This affected uniformity in problem solving.
  • The geographical vastness (size) of the continent. The size of about 12 million square
    miles hindered the effectiveness in promoting political unity and trade in Africa.
  • The heterogeneous nature of the continent was a major obstacle. Very many races, tribes, cultural and ethnic differences. This made unity of purpose very hard.


12 features of socialism in Tanzania between 1967 and 1985

  • The state controlled the means of production and hence no individual ownership like land.
  • Socialism followed a one party system, ie Tanzania African National Union (TANU) which later became to be the Chama chamapenduzi (C.C.M).
12 features of socialism in Tanzania between 1967 and 1985

  • The policy of socialism was composed of income equality and strongly castigated differentials in society.
  • There was forced villagization, ie people were encouraged to go and develop the rural areas.
  • The policy emphasized the revival of African cultural values in Tanzania.
  • It emphasized centralized planning. The Central government of Nyerere originated all the policies and handed down to the villages.
  • Socialism featured patriotism among the people of Tanzania- a virtue intended to have deep love for the nation and work towards its development.
  • The policy of socialism featured the introduction of a national language Kiswahili, this forged unity and eased communication.
  • The policy encouraged social justice and welfare, ie education and medical facilities in the villages.
  • Socialism encouraged hard work among the Tanzanians as also people had a responsibility to work for the nation.
  • The policy put more emphasis on agriculture with the intention to have adequate food to mitigate famine.
  • It featured the development of small scale industries. These were majorly set up on the established farms to add value.
  • Socialism emphasized self-reliance and reduce the negative effects of external borrowing associated with negative evils.
  • Grass root democracy was reflected in the socialism of Tanzania. These were in form of
  • village councils in line with the Central government requirements.

  • The policy of socialism laid more emphasis on lower education, ie universal primary education.
  • The policy emphasized the national defense of Tanzania through the creation of an army, ie Tanzania Peoples Defense Forces (TPDF).
  • Socialism emphasized unity through the removal of classes in society which ensured consolidated development.


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