Lack of transparency and accountability in government institutions: One of the main reasons for corruption in India is the lack of transparency and accountability in government institutions. The lack of transparency in the decision-making process, lack of access to information, and lack of accountability of public officials enable corruption to thrive.
Weak governance and rule of law: Another major cause of corruption in India is the weak governance and rule of law. The lack of effective enforcement of laws and regulations, inadequate institutional mechanisms to prevent corruption, and the absence of an independent and effective judiciary contribute to corruption.
Poverty and inequality: Poverty and inequality are also key drivers of corruption in India. Poor people are more likely to engage in corrupt practices to make ends meet, and the wealthy are more likely to use their power and influence to get favors from the government.
Lack of education and awareness: Lack of education and awareness among the population is another major contributor to corruption in India. The lack of knowledge about the rights and duties of citizens and the lack of understanding of the consequences of corruption make people more vulnerable to corruption.
Patronage and political corruption: Patronage and political corruption are also common causes of corruption in India. Political parties and leaders often use their power and influence to award contracts and jobs to their supporters, leading to corruption and nepotism.
Weak public institutions: The weak public institutions in India are also a major cause of corruption. The lack of effective oversight and control mechanisms, inadequate resources, and lack of capacity in public institutions make it easier for corruption to thrive.
Lack of effective mechanisms for fighting corruption: Finally, the lack of effective mechanisms for fighting corruption is another major cause of corruption in India. The lack of an independent and effective anti-corruption agency, inadequate laws and regulations, and the absence of effective mechanisms for reporting and punishing corruption make it difficult to combat corruption.
The functions of a Deputy Governor in Kenya are as follows:
Assisting the Governor: The Deputy Governor serves as the deputy chief executive of the county and assists the Governor in managing and coordinating the functions of the county administration. They work closely with the Governor to ensure effective governance and implementation of county policies and programs.
Acting as the Governor: In the absence of the Governor, the Deputy Governor assumes the role of the Governor. This means they temporarily take on the full powers and responsibilities of the Governor to ensure continuity in the governance and decision-making process.
Supervising the County Executive Committee: The Deputy Governor assists the Governor in supervising the work of the County Executive Committee. The County Executive Committee is responsible for implementing the county’s policies and executing various administrative functions.
Participating in Legislation: As a member of the County Executive Committee, the Deputy Governor participates in the legislative process. They may prepare proposals for county legislation, contribute to policy development, and provide insights and recommendations for the improvement of county laws and regulations.
Assumption of Governorship: In situations where the Governor is incapacitated or removed from authority, the Deputy Governor assumes the position of the Governor. This can occur due to various reasons, such as the Governor’s illness, suspension, or impeachment. In such cases, the Deputy Governor takes on the full authority and responsibilities of the Governor until the situation is resolved or a new Governor is appointed.
Overall, the Deputy Governor plays a crucial role in supporting the Governor, ensuring the smooth functioning of the county administration, and providing leadership and continuity in the governance of the county.
The functions of a County Executive Committee in Kenya are as follows:
Implementation of County Legislation: The County Executive Committee is responsible for implementing county legislation within the county. This includes ensuring that the policies, regulations, and laws passed by the county assembly are effectively implemented and enforced.
Implementation of National Legislation: The County Executive Committee also implements national legislation within the county. They ensure that the laws and regulations enacted by the national government are properly enforced and adhered to at the county level.
Management and Coordination of County Administration: The County Executive Committee manages and coordinates the functions of the county administration and its various departments. They provide overall leadership and direction to ensure efficient and effective service delivery to the residents of the county.
Preparation of Proposed Legislation: The County Executive Committee is responsible for preparing proposed legislation for consideration by the county assembly. They develop and draft new laws or amendments to existing laws that are aligned with the county’s needs and priorities.
Reporting to the County Assembly: The County Executive Committee is required to provide the county assembly with full and regular reports on matters relating to the county. This includes providing updates on the implementation of county policies, progress on projects and programs, financial reports, and any other relevant information that the assembly may require.
The County Executive Committee plays a crucial role in the governance and administration of the county. They are responsible for executing the county’s policies, ensuring compliance with laws and regulations, and providing accountability and transparency through regular reporting to the county assembly.
The principles of devolution of government in Kenya are outlined in the Constitution of Kenya. While there are several principles, I will focus on the ones you mentioned:
Democratic Principles and Separation of Power: County governments in Kenya are based on democratic principles and the separation of powers. This means that the powers and functions of government are divided between the national government and the county governments. County governments have their own governance structures, including executive and legislative bodies, which operate independently from the national government.
Reliable Sources of Revenue: County governments are entitled to reliable sources of revenue to enable them to effectively govern and deliver services to their constituents. The Constitution provides for the equitable sharing of national revenue between the national government and the county governments. This ensures that county governments have the necessary resources to fulfill their mandates and meet the needs of the people at the local level.
Gender Representation: The principle of gender representation is also emphasized in the devolution system. According to the Constitution, no more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each county government should be of the same gender. This provision aims to promote gender equality and ensure that women are adequately represented in decision-making processes at the county level.
These principles, along with others outlined in the Constitution, form the foundation of the devolution system in Kenya. The devolved government structure aims to bring governance closer to the people, promote accountability, enhance service delivery, and ensure inclusive and equitable development across the country.
Devolution This refers to the granting of power from the central government to a lower level such as a region or a local level.
A ‘Devolved Government’ is a system of government where there is a transfer or allocation of authority from a central government to a regional government. In a
devolved government, power and resources are decentralized with part of the political and economic decision making transferred to the people through the locally established assemblies.
Under the devolved government system in Kenya:
County Governments: Kenya is divided into 47 counties, each with its own government and administrative structure. The counties are semi-autonomous and have the authority to manage their own affairs, make decisions, and deliver services to their respective populations.
Functions and Powers: The Constitution assigns specific functions and powers to both the national and county governments. The national government retains certain functions such as defense, foreign affairs, and national security, while the county governments have jurisdiction over areas such as agriculture, healthcare, education, transport, and urban planning, among others.
County Assemblies: Each county has an elected County Assembly, which is responsible for making laws, oversight of the county government, and approving budgets and development plans. Members of the County Assembly (MCAs) are elected by the residents of each county.
County Executive Committee: Each county has a County Executive Committee, headed by a Governor who is elected by the residents of the county. The County Executive Committee is responsible for implementing county policies and managing the day-to-day affairs of the county government.
Revenue Sharing: The Constitution provides for the equitable sharing of revenue between the national government and the county governments. County governments receive a specific allocation of funds from the national government’s revenue, known as the County Allocation of Revenue (CAR), to finance their operations and deliver services to their constituents.
The devolved government system in Kenya aims to bring governance closer to the people, promote citizen participation, enhance accountability, and address regional imbalances in development. It allows for local decision-making, responsive service delivery, and the allocation of resources based on local needs and priorities.
The National Land Commission (NLC) in Kenya has several key functions as outlined in the Constitution of Kenya (2010). These functions include:
Management of Public Land: The NLC is responsible for managing public land on behalf of the national and county governments. This involves overseeing the administration, allocation, and sustainable use of public land to ensure it is utilized in the best interests of the public.
Land Registration Programme: The NLC advises the national government on a comprehensive program for land registration throughout the country. It provides guidance and recommendations on land registration processes, systems, and policies to facilitate efficient and transparent land registration.
Investigation of Historical Injustices: The NLC has the authority to investigate present and past historical injustices related to land. This can be initiated either through complaints received or through its own initiative. The NLC examines cases of land-related injustices and recommends appropriate actions to address the injustices and promote justice and reconciliation.
Promotion of Traditional Dispute Resolution: The NLC has a duty to encourage the use of traditional methods of dispute resolution in land conflicts. It promotes the use of customary and traditional dispute resolution mechanisms, where appropriate, to resolve conflicts related to land ownership, use, or management.
Recommendation of National Land Policy: The NLC recommends the national land policy to the national government. It conducts research, consultations, and analysis to develop comprehensive land policies that address issues of land ownership, distribution, use, and management in the country.
Assessment of Land Tax and Premiums: The NLC assesses tax on land and premiums on immovable property in designated areas as specified by law. It ensures that the assessment and collection of land-related taxes and premiums are done in accordance with relevant legislation and regulations.
Monitoring of Land Use Planning: The NLC monitors land use planning throughout the country. It assesses land use plans, zoning regulations, and development proposals to ensure they are aligned with sustainable land use practices, environmental conservation, and socio-economic development goals.
These functions of the National Land Commission are aimed at promoting effective land management, addressing historical injustices, resolving land conflicts, and ensuring equitable and sustainable use of land resources in Kenya.