• Crop growing purpose like Kakira sugar estate in jinja reclaimed Mutai swamp, Doho and Kibimba wetlands for rice growing in eastern Uganda and Kashambya swamps in Kabale reclaimed for vegetable gardens.

  • Animal rearing especially during dry seasons like in Kitgum and parts of R. Mayanja, Mpologoma and Lwampanga wetlands have been encroached by the Baluli-Nakasongola pastralists and Kiruruma swamp in Kabale were leased to dairy farmers.
  • Urbanization effect like in Bwaise, Kalerwe, Natete, Busega , New tax park areas have replaced wetlands where they exist in abit to extend Kampala city.
  • Collection of craft materials and clay and sand excavation like in Kajjansi swamp by Uganda clays, the Lwera and Lutembe swamps have been threatened by sand mining.
  • Industrialization like coca cola plant in Mbarara, bell factory in Luzira Port bell, Nalukolongo wetland claimed for Sembule steel rolling mills, Bwaise swamp for Avis cosmetics factory and many others in Nakawa and kyambogo in Kampala occupied Kyambogo-Mbuya wetlands.
  • Settlement were many swamps hava been cleared for purposes of home construction like in Kisenyi and Kalerwe swamps in Kampala.
  • Roads and infrastructure construction like the northern by-pass in kampala destroyed much of Lubigi swamp, kampala-Masaka road cleared part of katonga and Busega swamps, Jinja-Iganga-Tororo road destroyed parts of Walugogo, Lumbuye, Naigombya and Tirinyi swamps.

  • Fire out breaks by farmers and hunters have degraded Katonga, Lwera, Tirinyi and other swamps.
  • The practice of garbage disposal in wetlands by Kampala dwellers like in Kitezi wetlands, Luzira wetlands, Wakaliga, etc. Also Masese swamp in Jinja and Walugogo valley has suffered the same.
  • The industrial discharge and pollution by the mining sector have degraded swamps like Njeru wetland Polluted by NYTIL and Nile breweries in Jinja and Kazinga and George wetlands have been degraded by cobalt wastes in Kasese.



  • It has led to drying up of water wells and streams and lowering of the water table like in Butaleja, Pallisa and Iganga were Naigombya, Lumbuye and Mpologoma swamps have been reclaimed. This in turn is leading to the spread of the negative environmental phenomenon of desertification.

  • It has led to a change in water quality of such swamps and wetlands. Also since wetlands act as a filter to lakes, their reclamation increases water pollution into lakes like Victoria affecting aquatic life.
  • It has led to change in climatic regimes since swamp reclamation reduces rainfall received like in Pallisa and Iganga. This has discouraged crop growing and famine and drought are beginning to hit such places.
  • Reclamation of swamps affects the life of thousands of marine animals and plants whose habitat has been removed. Foristance reclaiming of Kachido and upper Murchison bay wetlands, Lutembe wetland has affected crested cranes and migrant birds from Europe hindering tourism.
  • The practice has led to floods in areas of Bwaise and Kalerwe, Kyambogo and Nakawa, etc. this has resulted into water borne diseases like dysentery, bilharzia and cholera in such areas of Kampala.

  • Reclamation affects the source of building materials such as papyrus, sand and clay. This has resulted into high costs of building materials and construction like clay bricks from Kajjansi, Lweza and Kawempe are expensive.
  • Swamp reclamation increases the rate of siltation of rivers and streams like in Walukuba, Makenke, and Magamag. Also the reclamation of Doho and Kibimba swamps has led to siltation of R. Manafa thus floods and loss of aquatic life.
  • It leads to reduction in fishing grounds.
  • Lowering of the water table which leads to drying up of streams and wells.
  • Leads to easy spread of diseases since it causes pests invasion.



The orange river project increased irrigation thereby creating more land for agricultural development for example at the Buchuburg dam an increment of 28000 hectares of agricultural land was realized while at
Torquay more than 1200 hectares of land was added onto the existing land.

An increase in agricultural land also increased crop production to over 25%, especially in the production of fruits, vegetables, maize, wheat, groundnuts, cotton, and many others which were grown on a large scale thereby guaranteeing food security for the South Africans.

The dangers of severe droughts over a large area of the Karoo were greatly reduced through the artificial application of water and South Africa became a major producer of wool as a result of improved sheep rearing in the region.

Flood control was also undertaken through the building of dams, stabilizing of the river banks well as reducing silting, and all these reduced damages. It also helped to save funds that would have been spent on the flood damage repairs.

The creation of the large water reservoirs through damming helped to stabilize the water supply for the new and existing irrigation schemes and in addition helped to supply freshwater to the neighboring towns and urban centers like Kimberly Buchuburg, Clan Williams, and many others.

There has been the production of HEP for both domestic and industrial use for example 240 megawatts are produced at the vanderkloof power station. Over 500 megawatts from Gariep station and combined with power from other stations has provided much-needed HEP for both domestic and industrial purposes.

The success of the project made it a reference point and model scheme for setting up other multipurpose projects not only in the Republic of South Africa but also in the rest of Africa for example the Kainji project in Nigeria, Kariba project in Zambia, Kaborabosa in Mozambique as well as the Lesotho highlands water project.

Employment opportunities have been provided to a number of people of South Africans as farmers, engineers, transporters, and those employed in the various industries. This has made them earn a disposable income and thus improve their living standards.

The project and its various facilities like the dams and manmade lakes, the powerhouses, recreation facilities, and many others have promoted tourism as both local and foreign tourists have been attracted to the area so as to see the various facilities. This has earned the country foreign exchange.

There has been the development of social and economic infrastructures as schools, health centers, recreation facilities, and many others have been set up in the area either by the government as part of the scheme or by the various industries established as part of their cooperation social responsibility. This has improved people`s standards of living in the area.

There has been a modification of climate from a semi-desert climate to a modified sub-tropical type due to the reforestation and afforestation carried out in the area as part of the project.

Foreign exchange is acquired after the export of power to neighboring Namibians as well as the export of various irrigation fields to other countries.

There has been the attraction of settlements into a formerly sparsely and underdeveloped area. North of South Africa was sparsely populated and rather undeveloped due to the harsh climatic conditions which cannot support agriculture and other activities but the success of the project attract settlements into the area.

There has been the development of towns and urban centers which started off as small trading centers but are now major towns with developed social and economic infrastructure for example Vanderkloof, Gariep, Torquay, Buchuburg, and many others.

The project promoted international relations between the Republic of South Africa and other countries in which it undertook the project that is Lesotho and Namibia and also other countries that sponsored
the project that is the UK and USA. This led to increased trade ties as well as economic growth and development.



  • Rivers are the source of water for domestic, industrial, and recreational purposes. For instance, Mbarara town gets water for domestic use from River Rwizi, and Nile breweries use water from River Nile as raw material in making beer hence the provision of jobs to Ugandans and government revenue.
  • The water from rivers like Mubuku and Manafa is used to facilitate irrigation at the Mubuku irrigation scheme in Kasese and Doho in eastern Uganda respectively. Such schemes have increased on food production and foreign exchange after rice and vegetable exports.
  • Rivers facilitate the generation of Hydro Electric Power like Owen falls dam and Bujagali dams on River Nile, Mubuku power station on River Mubuku, etc. Hydro Electric Power has lead to industrial development thus infrastructure development and jobs to Ugandans.

  • Rivers provide cheap water transport by ferry means like on lake Victoria. This has developed local trade, provided incomes to transporters hence improved living standards.
  • The papyrus swamps which develop along river banks such as on River Katonga and Mpologoma are potential raw materials for paper, packing, cardboard, roofing materials, and the general development of the craft industry thus employment to Ugandans.
  • Rivers are tourist attractions especially the waterfalls of Murchison, Bajagali, Sipi, and Karuma falls. The meandering nature of River Rwizi attracts tourists for foreign exchange in terms of invisible export which is used for further development.
  • Rivers like the Nile provide fishing grounds and fish caught for local consumption and for sale. The swampy areas along River Katonga provide mudfish, which provide proteins and are sold for better incomes to Ugandans.
  • The swampy areas and wetlands along river channels are natural habitats for wild animals, birds, and other marine life. Shoe bills and crested cranes survive in River Nile wetlands attracting tourists for foreign exchange.
  • There is clay mining along rivers like Katonga and Mpologoma for bricklaying thus the development of small-scale industries for jobs to Ugandans.

  • Rivers like the Nakivubo channel help to regulate the environmental impurities that would directly enter Lake Victoria leading to its pollution. Also, rivers modify the climate where they exist like river Manafa form reliable rainfall which supports rice and other crop growing in eastern Uganda.
  • River banks like Albert Nile have got fertile soils in West Nile areas supporting tobacco and other crop growing. This also has attracted settlement in the areas of Nebbi, Arua, etc. the grown crops have contributed foreign exchange to Uganda through exportation.



Tennessee river valley is found in the U.S.A and is a tributary of the Ohio river, the government of the U.S.A organized the development of the valley with the general aim of solving the economic difficulties of the people.

The major aims OF the Tennessee River Valley Authority included the following:

  • To control soil erosion.
  • To control flow of rivers so as to reduce flooding.
  • To generate HEP
  • To create viable infrastructures so as to generate or stimulate economic activities in the area.

  • To generally foster or encourage economic growth and development in the area which was under developed compared to other parts of USA



  • Poor labour supply due to rural urban migration.
  • Diseases like Cholera and malaria affect the farmers such that they fail to contribute effectively in the development of the scheme.
  • The climate problems like draught have been affecting water availability, sometimes the volume of water in the river decreases.

  • There are transport problems prevailing since the roads and bridges are not well constructed, hence during the wet season the area is not well accessible.
  • Expenses will be high since the process need high capital and the government does not have enough capital.
  • Low technology knowledge among the local people and hence they need intensive training to get the required knowledge and skills.
  • The researches and preliminary plans are taking too long. This will lead to the decline of other small projects because the government is concentrating more on that big project



Swamp reclamation refers to the clearing of wetlands for man’s survival.

This is happening to many swampy areas in Uganda such as Nabajuzi swamp in Masaka, Mutai swamp in jinja, Doho swamp, Kibimba swamp in eastern Uganda, Nalukolongo, Kalerwe-Bwaise wetlands, Lumbuye wetland, Lwampanga wetland along Kyoga, mpologoma wetland along R. Mpologoma, Nakayiba in Masaka, Kiruruma in Kabale, etc it should be noted that wetlands in Jinja and Kampala are the most degraded.

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