9 WAYS IN WHCH KENYA HAS BENEFITED FROM REGIONAL TRADE

Regional trade is trade between countries in a particular region. It can be either formal, through a regional trade agreement (RTA), or informal.

Regional trade agreements (RTAs) are treaties between two or more countries that reduce or eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers. They can also include provisions on investment, intellectual property, and services.

Informal regional trade can take many forms, such as cross-border trade between neighboring countries or the use of common currencies.

Kenya is a member of several regional trade agreements, including:

  • The East African Community (EAC): The EAC is a regional intergovernmental organization of six countries in Eastern Africa: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. The EAC was established in 1999 with the goal of promoting economic integration and cooperation among its member states.
  • The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA): COMESA is a regional intergovernmental organization of 21 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. COMESA was established in 1994 with the goal of promoting trade and economic integration among its member states.
  • The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): The AfCFTA is a proposed free trade area that would encompass all 55 countries in Africa. The AfCFTA was launched in 2018 with the goal of creating a single market for goods and services in Africa.
  • Kenya is also a signatory to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO is an intergovernmental organization that sets rules for international trade.




The following are ways in which Kenya has benefited from regional trade

Earns foreign exchange from exports

Kenya exports a variety of goods and services to other countries in the region, such as tea, coffee, flowers, and tourism. These exports earn Kenya foreign exchange, which can be used to import goods and services that Kenya cannot produce itself. Foreign exchange is also used to pay for imports of capital goods, such as machinery and equipment, which are needed for economic development.

Reduces tariffs making goods cheaper

When Kenya trades with other countries in the region, the tariffs on goods are often reduced or eliminated. This makes goods from other countries cheaper for Kenyan consumers to buy. This can lead to increased demand for imported goods, which can boost economic growth.

Promotes industrial growth and development

Regional trade can help to promote industrial growth and development in Kenya. When Kenyan businesses can export their goods to other countries in the region, they can achieve economies of scale and become more competitive. This can lead to increased investment in manufacturing and other industries, which can create jobs and boost economic growth.

Opens up large market for goods

Regional trade allows Kenyan businesses to access a larger market for their goods and services. This can help businesses to grow and expand, which can create jobs and boost economic growth.

Increases employment opportunities

Regional trade can create employment opportunities in Kenya in a number of ways. First, it can create jobs in the export sector, as businesses need to hire workers to produce goods and services for export. Second, it can create jobs in the import sector, as businesses need to hire workers to distribute and sell imported goods. Third, it can create jobs in the service sector, as businesses need to hire workers to provide services to exporters and importers.




It is a source of government revenue in the form of duties and tariffs.

When goods are traded between countries, the government of each country often charges a fee, known as a tariff, on the imported goods. This tariff is a source of revenue for the government, which can use it to fund public services such as education and healthcare. In Kenya, for example, the government collects billions of shillings in import duties each year. This revenue helps to finance the country’s development projects and to provide essential services to the people.

It readily avails goods and services needed by the people.

Regional trade makes it possible for people in Kenya to access goods and services that are not produced in the country. For example, Kenya does not produce its own oil, so it must import oil from other countries. Regional trade makes it possible for Kenya to import oil at a more affordable price than it would if it had to import it from countries outside of the region. Additionally, regional trade can help to diversify the economy by providing access to new markets and new products.

It promotes exchange of research findings and ideas

Regional trade can help to promote the exchange of research findings and ideas. When scientists and researchers from different countries work together, they can pool their resources and expertise to address common problems. For example, the East African Community (EAC) has a number of programs that promote research and innovation in the region. These programs have helped to improve the quality of life for people in the EAC by developing new products and services, and by finding solutions to common problems.

It improves transport and communication.

Regional trade can help to improve transport and communication links between countries. This is important because it makes it easier and cheaper to move goods and people between countries. Improved transport and communication links can also help to promote tourism and investment. For example, the EAC has a number of projects that are aimed at improving transport and communication links between the member countries. These projects have helped to boost trade and investment in the region.

It enhances international cooperation and mutual political understanding.

Regional trade can help to enhance international cooperation and mutual political understanding. This is because it brings countries together and gives them a common interest in working together. For example, the EAC has a number of political and economic cooperation agreements that have helped to promote peace and stability in the region. These agreements have also helped to improve the lives of people in the EAC by promoting economic development and reducing poverty.

In conclusion, regional trade has brought many benefits to Kenya. It has helped to boost the economy, improve the lives of the people, and promote peace and stability in the region. However, it is important to note that regional trade can also have some negative impacts, such as environmental degradation and job losses. It is important to carefully manage regional trade to maximize its benefits and minimize its negative impacts.

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7 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MOMBASA AND ROTTERDAM PORTS

Mombasa Port is the largest and busiest port in Kenya. It is located on the Indian Ocean coast, about 450 kilometers (280 mi) south of the capital, Nairobi.

The port was founded by the Portuguese in the 16th century and has been in operation ever since. It is a major transportation hub for East Africa and handles a wide variety of cargo, including containers, bulk commodities, and oil.

Mombasa Port is also a major tourist destination. The port is located in a beautiful setting and offers stunning views of the Indian Ocean. There are also several historical sites located near the port, including Fort Jesus, a Portuguese fort that was built in the 16th century.

The port is operated by the Kenya Ports Authority (KPA). The KPA is a state-owned corporation that is responsible for the management and operation of all ports in Kenya.

The Port of Rotterdam is the largest seaport in Europe and the second-largest in the world, after the Port of Shanghai. It is located in the Netherlands, on the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta.

The port handles a wide variety of cargo, including containers, oil, chemicals, and metals. It is a major gateway for goods entering and leaving Europe.

The port is also a major center for shipbuilding and repair. It is home to several shipyards that build and repair ships of all sizes.

The Port of Rotterdam is a major economic driver for the Netherlands. It employs over 385,000 people and generates billions of euros in revenue each year.

The port is constantly expanding and modernizing. In recent years, it has invested heavily in new infrastructure, such as a new container terminal and a new oil terminal.

The Port of Rotterdam is a vitally important asset for the Netherlands. It is a major gateway to the global economy and is a major driver of economic growth.




 The following are difference between the port of Mombasa and Rotterdam

Rotterdam handles more cargo than Mombasa

Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe and the second-largest port in the world by cargo tonnage. In 2021, the port handled 147.3 million tons of cargo, while Mombasa handled 20.9 million tons of cargo. This is due to a number of factors, including Rotterdam’s strategic location at the mouth of the Rhine River, its deepwater access, and its extensive network of rail and road connections.

Rotterdam has room for expansion while Mombasa has limited space

Rotterdam is located on a large estuary, which gives it plenty of room for expansion. The port has been expanding its capacity in recent years, and it is expected to continue to grow in the future. Mombasa, on the other hand, is located on a small peninsula, which limits its potential for expansion. The port is already operating at capacity, and it is facing challenges in accommodating the growing volume of cargo.

Rotterdam is linked by road, railway, pipeline, air as well as waterways while Mombasa is linked by road, railway, pipeline and air

Rotterdam is well-connected to its hinterland by road, rail, pipeline, and air. The port is also accessible by sea, and it has a large network of waterways that connect it to other ports in Europe. Mombasa is also well-connected to its hinterland by road, rail, and pipeline. However, the port does not have direct air connections, and its network of waterways is not as extensive as Rotterdam’s.

Rotterdam exports mainly manufactured goods while Mombasa exports mainly raw materials

Rotterdam is a major transhipment hub for manufactured goods from Europe to other parts of the world. The port also exports a significant amount of agricultural products. Mombasa, on the other hand, exports mainly raw materials, such as coffee, tea, and oilseeds.

Rotterdam services a hinterland of developed countries while Mombasa services hinterland of developing countries

Rotterdam’s hinterland includes some of the most developed countries in the world, such as Germany, France, and the Netherlands. Mombasa’s hinterland includes some of the least developed countries in the world, such as Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.

Rotterdam has up to date cargo handling technology while Mombasa is less mechanised

Rotterdam has some of the most advanced cargo handling technology in the world. The port uses automated systems to load and unload ships, and it has a large number of cranes and other equipment. Mombasa, on the other hand, is less mechanized, and it relies more on manual labor to handle cargo.




These are just some of the key differences between Mombasa and Rotterdam ports. The two ports have different strengths and weaknesses, and they serve different markets. Rotterdam is a major global hub for trade, while Mombasa is a regional port that serves the East African coast.

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8 SIGNIFICANCE OF WILD ANIMALS TO THE ECONOMY OF KENYA

Kenya is home to an incredible diversity of wildlife, with over 400 mammal species and over 1,100 bird species. However, Kenya’s wildlife is facing a number of threats, including:

Habitat loss: Habitat loss is the destruction of the natural environment that animals need to survive. It is caused by factors such as deforestation, agricultural expansion, and urban development.

Climate change: Climate change is causing changes in rainfall patterns and temperatures, which is affecting the availability of food and water for animals. It is also causing changes in the distribution of animals, as they are forced to move to new areas in search of food and water.

Overpopulation: Kenya’s human population is growing rapidly, which is putting pressure on the country’s natural resources. This is leading to increased deforestation, agricultural expansion, and pollution, all of which are harmful to wildlife.

Poaching: Poaching is the illegal killing of animals for their meat, ivory, or other body parts. It is a major threat to many of Kenya’s endangered species, such as the black rhinoceros and the elephant.




The following are ways in which wild animals are of significance to the economy of Kenya:

They earn the country foreign exchange from tourism.

Tourism is a major source of income for Kenya, and wild animals are a major draw for tourists. In 2021, tourism generated $2.1 billion in revenue for Kenya, and this number is expected to grow in the coming years. Wild animals are found in many of Kenya’s national parks and reserves, which are popular tourist destinations. Tourists come to Kenya to see the country’s unique wildlife, such as lions, elephants, and zebras. They also come to enjoy the country’s beautiful scenery and diverse cultures.

It provides employment to the people, national parks, and tourist hotels.

The tourism industry employs millions of people in Kenya, directly and indirectly. Jobs are created in the transportation sector, the hospitality sector, and the retail sector. National parks and tourist hotels also employ a large number of people. In addition, many people in rural areas earn income from selling souvenirs and handicrafts to tourists.

Wild animals help provide alternative land use in semi-arid areas which are not suitable for agriculture.

Wildlife can be used to manage semi-arid areas that are not suitable for agriculture. This is because wild animals can help to prevent overgrazing and soil erosion. In addition, wild animals can provide a source of food and income for local people. For example, in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, wildlife is used to manage the land and to provide a source of income for the Maasai people.

Some animals provide raw materials for industries.

Some wild animals, such as elephants and rhinos, provide raw materials for industries such as the ivory trade and the rhino horn trade. However, these trades are illegal and harmful to the environment. Other wild animals, such as hides and skins, can be used to make products such as leather goods.

Wild animals provide a balanced ecosystem in Kenya.

Wild animals play an important role in maintaining a balanced ecosystem in Kenya. They help to control the populations of other animals, such as rodents and insects. They also help to disperse seeds and pollinate plants. A healthy ecosystem is essential for the survival of humans and other animals.

They earn the government revenue.

The government of Kenya earns revenue from the tourism industry, which is partly due to wild animals. The government also earns revenue from hunting licenses and from the sale of ivory and rhino horn (although these are illegal trades).

The conservation of wild animals stimulates the development of roads which leads to increased accessibility to some otherwise remote areas.

The conservation of wild animals often requires the development of roads and other infrastructure in remote areas. This can lead to increased accessibility to these areas, which can benefit local people and businesses. For example, the construction of roads in the Masai Mara National Reserve has made it easier for tourists to visit the reserve, which has benefited the local economy.




Wild animals provide game meat for local consumption and export.

  • Local consumption: Wild meat is a popular source of protein for many people in Kenya. It is also an important source of income for hunters and traders. In 2017, the value of the wild meat trade in Kenya was estimated to be $100 million.
  • Export: Kenya is a major exporter of wild meat, mostly to the Middle East and Asia. In 2017, the value of the wild meat export from Kenya was estimated to be $50 million.

The trade in wild meat is controversial, as it can lead to the overexploitation of wildlife. However, it is also an important source of income for many people in Kenya. The government is working to regulate the trade in wild meat in order to ensure that it is sustainable.

National parks/game reserves are used for scientific studies and research.

  • Scientific studies: National parks and game reserves are important sites for scientific studies of wildlife and their habitats. Researchers study a variety of topics, including animal behavior, ecology, and conservation.
  • Research: National parks and game reserves are also used for research purposes. For example, they are used to test new technologies, such as solar-powered water pumps.

The research conducted in national parks and game reserves is important for understanding and conserving wildlife. It also helps to develop new technologies that can be used to benefit people and the environment.

In conclusion, wild animals are an important part of the economy of Kenya. They contribute to tourism, employment, land use, raw materials, a balanced ecosystem, government revenue, and infrastructure development. The conservation of wild animals is essential for the sustainable development of Kenya.

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ADVANTAGES OF OIL PRODUCTION IN THE MIDDLE EAST




The middle east is the largest oil-producing region in the world. It accounts for about a third of the total world production of oil.

The main producers of oil in this region include Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab emirates.

petroleum is mineral oil, organic in origin, and occurs in the pore spaces of sedimentary rocks

It is driven by the decomposition of marine or vegetative matter




The oil is usually trapped in the crest of the anticline with gas above the water below

Oil may also be extracted in its gaseous state as natural gas

This consists mainly of methane and ethane and is used for heating, lighting, and the chemical industry

In developed nations, natural gas is pumped through pipes for use in homes and industrial plants.




The middle east is the largest oil-producing region in the world. It accounts for about a third of the total world production of oil. The main producers of oil in this region include Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, and the United Arab emirates.

The following are advantages of oil production in the Middle East:

  • Provision of energy and power. Petroleum provides the Middle East and the world at large with energy and power for various purposes, including the running of manufacturing plants, mining machinery, and vehicles.
  • Oil production has been the major source of foreign exchange in the Middle East. The Middle East countries earn a lot of foreign exchange from exporting oil to the rest of the world. Foreign exchange earned increases the capital base for the development of other sectors such as trade and commerce.
Provision of energy and power. Petroleum provides the Middle East and the world at large with energy and power for various purposes, including the running of manufacturing plants, mining machinery, and vehicles.
Oil production has been the major source of foreign exchange in the Middle East. The Middle East countries earn a lot of foreign exchange from exporting oil to the rest of the world. Foreign exchange earned increases the capital base for the development of other sectors such as trade and commerce.




  • Oil production is the source of employment for the people in the Middle East. A good number of people in the Middle East have been employed in the petroleum production sector providing them with a source of income.
  • Improvement of social services. The revenue earned from the oil industry is used to establish and strengthen social services and amenities such as schools, hospitals, sports, and garbage collection.
  • Improvement of transport. The income generated from petroleum mining has enabled middle eastern countries to develop roads, railways, harbors, and airports. This has, in turn, improved transportation activities in the region.

OIL PROSPECTING AND DRILLING




  • A survey of the geological structure of the area is carried out first, and then modern oil are sunk to the depth where oil is underground
  • Once a drilling site is decided, a steel derrick will be erected and equipment for drilling brought in
  • Steel tubes are inserted in the borehole and then oil is pumped out using pumps

OIL TRANSPORTATION

  • For emergency purposes they use aircrafts
  • For local use they sue oil trucks and railway wagons
  • It involves construction of pumping stations at intervals along the pipe line
  • Sea transports, oil tankers which are large are used
  • The cheapest and the most efficient method of transporting oil over land are by pipe line
  • The pipe line serves on money, time and labor and operation is very simple




OIL REFINING

Mineral oil has many hydrocarbons and it has little use unless it is refined

OIL REFINERIES MAY BE LOCATED:

  • At the port of export
  • At the port of import
  • In or near the oil fields. This is a temporary measure and applies only to small refineries.

THE THREE METHODS OF REFINING

Fractional Distillation:




  • Fractional distillation is the most universal form of oil refining
  • The mechanism splits the oil into various groups of hydrocarbons or fractions at very high temperatures
  • As each fraction boils at different temperature, various groups of hydrocarbons are extracted at their own boiling point
  • Lighter fractions like petrol, paraffin and benzene are evaporated and condensed first at the temperature below 30oC
  • The heavier fractions like diesel, lubricating and fuel oils are condensed later at the temperatures between 30o C and 427o C
  • At the end of the line is the residue made up of the heaviest fuel oils like Vaseline, wax and asphalt.

Thermal cracking




This is a process by which the heavier fractions are heated too much at a higher temperature until they break down or “crack” into the lighter fractions.

Catalytic cracking

A process by which a catalyst such as powdered platinum is added to speed up the cracking process.

THE USES OF OIL

  • As an indispensable motor fuel.
  • As a lubricant. It is important in lubricating machine parts reduce friction
  • As an important source of power.




OIL DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCTION

  • 60% of the world’s oil is in the middle east
  • Among the Middle East producers are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait and Iran
  • In Africa we have countries like Libya, Algeria and Nigeria
  • In America we have countries like USA, Canada, and Mexico
  • The major producers are USSR, Iran and USA
  • Venezuela accounts for only 4% of the world’s outputs

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2 TYPES OF WATER TRANSPORT




what is water transport?

Water transport is the cheapest and the oldest mode of transport.

water transport is the movement of people and goods by boats, ships, barge or sailboat across ocean, sea, lake, canal or river or through other modes of water transportation

types of water transport

Inland waterways

Inland waterways comprise waterways within the continents or countries such as lakes, canals, and rivers.




Inland waterways are sometimes known as internal water transport. Inland waterways can be artificial or natural depending on whether they are man-made or not.

For example, rivers like the Congo River in Central Africa can be referred to as natural waterways since they are not made or modified by humans.

On the other hand canals such as the Suez Canal and st Lawrence canal in North America are referred to as artificial waterways because they have been constructed by humans.

Ocean waterways




Ocean waterways or open water transport refers to transportation that is carried out in the open ocean surrounding countries or continents.

Countries that are not bordering the ocean are called landlocked countries, and they can be accessed either by inland waterways or by road transport, rail transport, or air transport.




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10 INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT SERENGETI NATIONAL PARK IN TANZANIA




Serengeti comes from the Maasai chat “Siring” meaning “Endless Plain”, which absolutely is what it means: hundreds of kilometers of collapsed apparent land, more good termed “The Sea of Grass On Plains”.

Serengeti comes from the Maasai chat “Siring” meaning “Endless Plain”, which absolutely is what it means: hundreds of kilometers of collapsed apparent land, more good termed “The Sea of Grass On Plains”.

Serengeti National Park is located on Tanzania‘s northern border with Kenya. It is one of the most important African tourism circuits and an extension of the Kenyan Maasai Mara National Park and Simiyu regions.

 Below are a few interesting facts about the Serengeti national park.

  • It was first established in the 1920’s and was made a National Park in 1951 and covers 14,750 square kilometers (5,700 square miles) of grassland plains, savanna, riverine forest, and woodlands.




  • The Serengeti National Park eco-system is the oldest on the planet. It boasts a diversity of flora and fauna that is unavailable anywhere else on the globe. 
  • In more than 1 million years, little has changed in the park. The wild animals, the plants and waterways are still largely intact as they were one million years ago. Amazingly, the oldest remains of man (2 million years ago) were discovered here by the famous East Africa archaeologist, Dr. Leakey.
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  • The Expanse of Serengeti is home to the only active volcano in the area – the Ol Doinyo Lengai. It ejects mineral rich carbonate lava that is washed down to the plains of Serengeti to fertilize the land.




  • The Serengeti is famed for its annual wildebeest migration, one of the (2006) world’s seven natural wonders – when some six million hooves cross the open plains, as more than 1,000,000 wildebeest, 200,000 zebra and 300,000 Thomson’s gazelle join the trek for fresh grazing. This is one of the most impressive natural events in the world.
Image result for serengeti national park
  • Serengeti is one of the cheapest National Parks in Tanzania. For the variety you will see, the park entrance fee is a bargain.
  • Great herds of buffalo, smaller groups of elephant and giraffe, and thousands upon thousands of eland, topi, kongoni, impala and Grant’s gazelle are resident at any time of the year. 
  • All three big cats are easily seen. Lions are everywhere and are often found on a kill. Cheetahs are very common on the southeastern plains, while leopards can often be found lazing in one of the big trees along the Seronera River.
Image result for serengeti national park
  • In the 1890s, droughts and a rinderpest epidemic (also known as cattle plague or steppe murrain) took a serious toll on the animal population of the Serengeti, in particular the wildebeest. By the mid-1970s the wildebeest and the buffalo populations had recovered.




Image result for serengeti national park
  • Some 250,000 wildebeest die during the journey from Tanzania to Maasai Mara Reserve in lower Kenya, a total of 500 miles (800 km), according to the World Wildlife Fund for Nature. Death is usually from thirst, hunger, exhaustion, or predators.
  • The Maasai people had been grazing their livestock in the open plains for around 200 years when the first European explorers visited the area. German geographer and explorer Dr. Oscar Baumann entered the area in 1892. The first Brit to enter the Serengeti, Stewart Edward White, recorded his explorations in the northern Serengeti in 1913.

We hope that you have found this article useful. If you have any additional interesting fact about Serengeti national park you would like to share with us please add them to the comment below.




The Maasai people had been grazing their livestock in the open plains for around 200 years when the first European explorers visited the area. German geographer and explorer Dr. Oscar Baumann entered the area in 1892. The first Brit to enter the Serengeti, Stewart Edward White, recorded his explorations in the northern Serengeti in 1913

9 ADVANTAGES OF COASTAL TOURISM




Coastal tourism is the type of tourism that takes place on the coast or coastal area. Our case studies are drawn from coastal South Africa (Durban) and Kenya (Mombasa).

Durban in South Africa lies on the coast and it gets many tourists because of its beautiful coastal attractions. Mombasa is also a coastal town found in Kenya. Mombasa is also well known for its unique and attractive features.

 The following are the advantages of coastal tourism

Major source of government revenue




Major source of government revenue which is earned through license, taxes or duties and other fees. Durban tourism contributes 2/3 of the Province GDP.

Source of foreign exchange.

Foreigners bring in the needed revenues which most countries use to pay for their imports. For example, in Botswana, we use the money for paying for food, clothing, machinery, medicine imports.




Promotion of local industry like crafts

Examples of such crafts include baskets, pottery, jewellery, leather works and paintings.

Promotes the growth of other economic sectors like Agriculture, Trade, Transport and Communication

These industries in turn provide the ed products and services to the tourism industry.

Source of employment

Durban tourism contributes 30% or 40% to the Province’s employment. As mentioned earlier in the previous topics, many people are employed in hotels, game parks and reserves, airports and so on.

Promotes development of infrastructure

This includes roads, railways, schools, health facilities, accommodation facilities.




Provides a market for locally made goods

Tourists buy locally made goods and some come and establish business relationships leading to the creation of a big market for our goods.

Coastal tourism is an important industry that brings many benefits to local communities, including jobs, income, and economic growth. It also provides opportunities for people to experience the beauty of coastal regions, and has the potential to promote sustainable development.

Coastal tourism can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as pollution and overcrowding. It is important for policymakers and tourism operators to manage the growth of coastal tourism in a sustainable way, to ensure that the benefits of coastal tourism are enjoyed by all. Overall, coastal tourism is a valuable industry that can bring many benefits to local communities and visitors alike, but it is important to be mindful of the potential negative impacts and strive to minimize them.

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