Distinguish between stability and instability in the atmosphere

Stability in the atmosphere refers to a state of equilibrium reached in the atmosphere when a mass of dry air which is rising in form of wind has a lapse rate that is greater than that of the surrounding air i.e the environmental lapse rate of an air mass is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

Stability in the atmosphere refers to a state of equilibrium reached in the atmosphere when a mass of dry air which is rising in form of a wind has a lapse rate that is greater than that of the surrounding air i.e the environmental lapse rate of an air mass is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

The rising air mass loses its temperature ultimately becoming cooler and denser than the surrounding air mass. It then sinks back to the ground level unless when some external force is at work.

Instability in the other hand is a state of unstable equilibrium of the atmosphere where the environmental lapse rate of an air mass is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate.

A surface pocket of unsaturated air when heated, will rise and cool at the dry adiabatic lapse rate and because it is warmer than the surrounding air mass, it will continue to rise.

Instability in the other hand is a state of unstable equilibrium of the atmosphere where the environmental lapse rate of an air mass is greater than the dry adiabatic lapse rate. A surface pocket of unsaturated air when heated, will rise and cool at the dry adiabatic lapse rate and because it is warmer than the surrounding air mass, it will continue to rise.

Due to the fact that the surrounding air is denser than the rising air mass, it will force it up to greater heights where it cools from.

High instability leads to the formation of cumulo-nimbus clouds, stratus, and cirrus clouds.

The strato-cumulus and cumulo-nimbus clouds are associated with intense rainfall and thunderstorms.

The cirrus and stratus clouds give rise to clear skies / sunny weather conditions

The strato-cumulus and cumulo-nimbus clouds are associated with intense rainfall and thunderstorms.

The alto-cumulus and alto-stratus clouds give rise to light drizzles and unstable windy conditions

High humidity is formed within the atmosphere


LOW/UNDER POPULATION refers to a situation where the number of people is less than the resources within an area.

Advantages of low or underpopulation

  • It avails enough land for agriculture and settlement.
  • It minimizes the problem of congestion and overcrowding.
  • The dependency ratio is low and this may encourage savings and investments.

  • Less possibility of slum development since people are few.
  • Less government expenditure on the provision of social services.
  • Social conflicts over land are not likely to come up because of a sparse population.
  • It avails people with enough food hence reducing the possibility of famine.


  • Differences in natural endowments especially raw materials e.g. Uganda has more agricultural raw materials but less high value minerals.
  • Specialisation also leads to inter-state trade e.g. Uganda has specialised in agricultural exports while Kenya produces more manufactured goods.
  • Differences in levels of development e.g. Kenya has a highly developed industrial sector than Uganda and Tanzania.
  • Presence of developed means of transport e.g. roads and railways which help to promote cross-border trade.

  • Outbreak of political unrest in one country reduces her level of production hence leading to international trade e.g. Uganda.
  • Formation of the East African Community which encourages peaceful trade relationships among the member countries.
  • Outbreak of natural disasters in one country can also lead to international trade to get essential goods like basins, mattresses and blankets e.g. Bududa landslides.
  • Differences in climate also lead to inter-state to get food e.g. Uganda provides a lot of maize to Kenya.
  • The need to earn government revenue through customs duty and trade licenses also leads to inter-state trade.

The need to dispose of surplus produce also leads to inter-state trade in a bid to create a market for the produced items


Irrigation is the artificial addition of water to the soil.

Irrigation schemes in East Africa are both small and on large scale.

They are found in both dry and wet areas in East Africa.

Examples of irrigation schemes in East Africa include;

CountryIrrigation schemeSource of water for irrigationCrops grown 
  UgandaDoho (Manafwa district)River ManafwaRice (major)                 
Kibimba (Bugiri district)River KibimbaRice (cassava)
Mobuku (Kasese district)River Mobuku & SebweMaize and cotton
    KenyaAhero pilot scheme( Kano plains in Western Kenya)River Nyando  Rice  
Galole pilot schemeRiver TanaCotton
Mwea-TebereRiver Thiba, Tana & NyamindiRice
MumiasRiver Nzoia and River KhalebaSugarcane
Tanzania        1. KilomberoRiver Kilombero and RuahaSugarcane


The following are steps taken to encourage export trade and reduce import trade in East Africa

  • The three countries are building manufacturing industries (export promotion industries) to enable them to stop importing manufactured goods.
  • Heavy duties (taxes) are levied on imported manufactured goods to discourage their demand on the local market as well as protect the local infant industries.
  • Foreign investors are attracted to set up big industries in the region by giving them tax holidays.
  • Tax holidays are also given to infant industries to enable them to start producing goods locally.

  • Formation of regional blocks e.g. East African Community (E.A.C) to encourage cross-border trade without any restrictions.
  • Carrying out extensive market research to diversify the markets and create more demand abroad for locally made items.
  • Increased advertisements through international media to create awareness about East Africas products which increases demand.
  • Ensuring political stability has attracted more foreign investors to set up industries in East Africa.
  • Encouraging economic diversification by the government to reduce dependence on agriculture and encourage industrial development.

N.B: the three countries are trying their best to develop both visible trade and invisible trade.

  • Visible trade is the trade in imports and exports of tangible products like agricultural and manufactured goods.
  • Invisible trade refers to the trade in services such as tourism, health, labour and education.



Water is perhaps the most important commodity on earth.

There can be no life on earth without water.

Therefore, water plays a very crucial role in every existence of human beings and other animals, as well as in their activities.

Economic uses and importance of water:

  • Water is used to clean clothes and other fabrics in homes. On commercial basis, it is used by dry cleaners, capital washing firms and domestic and office cleaning companies.
  • In manufacturing industries, water is used for various purposes. These include washing raw materials, washing containers and machines, diluting chemicals or ingredients as well as a raw material in industries such as in beverages industries e.g Coca cola

  • Water is also put to several uses in the agricultural sector. Among others uses, it is used to irrigate crops and given to farm animals to drink.
  • Water is a key component of the electricity generation process. It may be directly used to turn turbines that generate electricity or it may be heated to produce steam which is then used to power machines that produced electricity.
  • Water is used for recreational purposes such as swimming. People pay to use facilities such as swimming pools, thus generating income for those who run the facilities.

  • Water facilitates the growth and development of the fishing industry. This is because water supports the existence of fish in rivers, lakes, ocean or in fish ponds.
  • People who sell water in estates earn income from this activity. Water provision also generates money for supplying water to homes, offices and industries.



The following are geography review questions covering human geography concepts and can be used by students preparing for national exams and those who are looking to test their knowledge on human geography.

1. Examine eight factors, which lead to the growth of settlement in different parts of the world.
2. Describe natural and human causes of loss of biodiversity.
3. In order to achieve economic development, transport and communication are inevitable. describe the significance of transportation in developing countries.

4  a)What is the research problem
    b)Name four sources of the research problem
    c)Explain four characteristics of the research problem
5. Despite having large lakes and rivers in the East Africa fishing industry is not well developed. discuss
6. Write short notes on the following
    a) population structure
   b) population pressure
  c) population explosion
  d) life expectancy
  e) fertility
  f) fecundity
 g) infant mortality rate
 h) child mortality rate
8 a) State the advantages of air photography over the map
   b) State the difference between map and photograph

9. a) Explain the causes and effects of soil acidity
    b) What are methods used to manage soil affected by salt

10. What is the role of climate and parent material on the formation and development of the soil

11. the topography of the land is a single major factor that controls soil catena. discuss

12. Describe the role of climate in soil profile development

13. Explain the view that “soil is the product of their environment”

14. Account for causes of the waterfall.

15. Explain the weather associated with tropical cyclone

16. Explain the causes of condensation

17. Account for the structural development of spring

18. What is the importance of soil PH  to farmers.

19.  give characteristics of ocean currents.

20. Show the advantage and disadvantages of a geological time scale.

21. Examine the characteristics of Mediterranean vegetation

22. Explain the various processes involved in soil formation

23. With specific examples, enumerate nine (9) importance of the river in Africa.

24. Discuss the environmental effects of greenhouse effects and global warming.
25. Justify the sphericity of the planet earth with vivid evidence 

26. Classify igneous rock according to the place of occurrence and chemical composition

27. write an essay on the atmospheric heat budget

28. Attempt a classification of lakes according to their mode of formation

29. .Describe the main characteristics of the equatorial rainforest and deciduous forest

30. Give am account on coastal features related to the emergence and submergence of the coastline

31. The variation in the river volume is an inevitable circumstance .discuss

32. Using vivid examples explain the causes and effects of earthquakes
33. What is meant by the lapse rate? in what ways the study of lapse rate  assist in understanding the   weather

34. To what extent is water erosion responsible  for the development of desert landforms

35. What evidence is there to indicate that the important changes in sea level have occurred during and since the ice age? suggest the possible reasons

36. With reference discuss the relationship between drainage patterns and geological features.

37. What are the chief factors that determine the character of coasts?

38. Compare the effects of glaciation upon upland and lowland areas.

39. Discuss the landforms and the factors involved in the development of the cross profile of the river.

40. Explain the condition needed in the atmosphere for condensation and precipitation to take place.

41. Discuss the main characteristics of the monsoon climate.

42. Give an explanation of the weather phenomena resulting from atmospheric instability.

43. The formation of volcanoes in terms of the development of landforms result from igneous activity. do you agree with this statement?

44. What is meant by the term ”rejuvenation” giving a reasoned account of pieces of evidence that indicate a part change of sea level.

45. Briefly describe the world distribution of coral reefs. what is the problem posed by their origin?

46. To what extent is wind responsible for the formation of landforms.

47. Name and describe features associated with faulting

48. Man especially in third world countries has gradually sown the seed of his own destruction through starvation by his continued actions in aiding soil erosion. comment on this statement and suggest how the problems of soil erosion can be checked.

49. Examine the nature and distribution of major world fold mountain systems.

50. Using diagrams explain the importance of structure in the formation of spring and wells

51. Distinguish between rock weathering and erosion.

52. Give an account of landforms resulting from the intrusive igneous activity.

53. Discuss the development of surface and subsurface features in the limestone region.

54. Discuss the concept of a graded river profile and briefly discuss the obstacle to attain this stage.

55.  With reference to named examples examine the features resulting from marine erosion.

56. How does air manage to rise? explain what atmospheric stability and instability mean and comment on their effect on weather conditions.
57. With reference to specific examples discuss the influence of ocean currents on the adjacent land areas.

58. Discuss the factors other than climate that influence the natural vegetation of the place.

59. Outline the principle results of soil leaching.
60.      Identify and explain the factors influencing the development of agriculture

61.      Account for agricultural success in North America and china

62.      Identify and explain the problems facing agriculture in China

63.      What lesson does Tanzania learn from agricultural success in China

64.      Give reason for agricultural failure in many African countries.

65.      Describe the role played by the climate in the weathering process.

66.      What is river capture? Describe the features due to river capture

67.      What are the merits and demerits of choropleth maps?

68.      Classify air masses

69.   With examples explain the conditions that produce geysers and hot springs

70.   Using the rock cycle explain the forces responsible for  the transformation of one rock type to another

71.   Define soil conservation and give an account of the farming system that  conserve soil

72.   “The theory of continental drift is irrelevant to African continent” discuss.

73.   Show the role of water in the weathering process.

74.   Justify the statement that “salinity in the ocean is the result of several causes”

75.   By giving examples attempt the classification of rock according to their mode of formation.

76.   Describe how soil porosity can be determined and explain its importance in to plant growth

77.   Very acidic or very alkaline soils are harmful to plant growth. Elucidate

78.   Explain the main characteristics of air masses in temperate region

79.   Classify the types of delta and show the conditions that determine the  formation of delta

80.   Providing examples describe and explain the causes and effects of earthquakes.

81.   “The present rate of population expansion in sub-Saharan Africa is unsustainable” critically analyses this statement.

82.   Discuss the factors influencing fertility regulation.

83.   The participation of Tanzania in different regional economic integration is detrimental to her economy” critically assess this contention.

84.   The creation of regional economic integration in Africa does not guarantee economic development. Discuss

85.   Using German as an example, describe the causes and effect of acid rain and state the measure which should be taken to rectify the problem of acid rain

86.   Outline the factors that have led to the successful fishing industry in Norway and Russia

87.   Discuss in details the hindrance against the agricultural sector in Tanzania     

88.    Examine the major limiting factors facing cattle ranching in Tanzania as alternative to nomadic system of cattle management

89.   What things developing countries in Africa can learn from Switzerland in developing the tourism sector

90.   “The task of defining the research problem often follow sequential pattern’. Explain

91.   ‘Soil are the product of their environment’. Discuss

92.   Show the existing relationship between population, development and environment and describe how do they influence each other

93.   Desertification is manmade phenomenon. Discuss

94.   Examine the factors for the development of the manufacturing industry in German

95.   Discuss the lesson Tanzania has learned from agricultural development in china

96.   Tanzania has an abundance of natural resources, however, those resources are not effectively utilized for national development. Why?

97.   Population in most less developed countries is not an opportunity for sustainable development. discuss

98.   While urbanization in developed countries was the sign of development, in less developed countries is the sign of poverty. Verify

99.   New east African community is still at infancy stage therefore it is too early to asses its achievement. However, there are impending problems that can be elaborated. Elucidate

100.   Climate of the place is the function of various factors. Substantiate.

102.   What are positive and negative effects of climate in human life

103.   What do you understand by the term climate change? Explain the major  causes of climate change
104.   Distinguish weathering and erosion as the agent of land sculpture


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