There are several causes of unemployment in India, including:

  • Economic slowdown: During times of economic recession or slowdown, businesses may cut back on hiring or lay off workers, leading to higher unemployment.

  • Lack of education and skills: In India, a large proportion of the population lacks the education and skills needed to qualify for many job openings. This can lead to a mismatch between the available jobs and the skills of the job seekers.
  • Overpopulation: India has a large and growing population, which can lead to increased competition for jobs and higher unemployment rates.
  • Agricultural sector: The agricultural sector, which employs a significant portion of the Indian population, is prone to fluctuations due to factors such as weather, crop failures, and changing market conditions. This can lead to seasonal unemployment and underemployment.
  • Lack of job opportunities: In some parts of India, there may be a lack of job opportunities, particularly in rural areas. This can lead to high levels of unemployment, particularly among the youth.
  • Lack of infrastructure: Poor infrastructure in some parts of India can limit the development of industries and businesses, leading to a lack of job opportunities.
  • Government policies: Government policies and regulations can sometimes have an impact on employment, either directly or indirectly. For example, policies that favor certain industries or sectors may lead to job creation in those areas, while policies that are unfavorable to businesses may lead to job losses.
  • Technological change: The adoption of new technologies can lead to the automation of certain jobs, leading to job losses and unemployment.

  • Inefficient labor markets: Inefficient labor markets, characterized by rigid labor laws, low mobility, and a lack of transparency, can make it difficult for workers to find jobs and for businesses to hire the right employees.
  • Political instability: Political instability and uncertainty can create an uncertain business environment, leading to a slowdown in hiring or even layoffs.



  • Decrease in the overall standard of living: Unemployment leads to a decrease in income for individuals and families, which leads to a decrease in their overall standard of living.
  • Increase in poverty: With fewer people working, there is less money circulating in the economy. This leads to an increase in poverty as people struggle to afford basic necessities.

  • Increased crime rates: Unemployment can lead to frustration and desperation, which can lead to an increase in criminal activity.
  • Decrease in economic growth: When there are fewer people working, there is less production and a slower rate of economic growth.
  • Social unrest: Unemployment can lead to social unrest and protests as people become frustrated with their lack of opportunities.
  • Decrease in social mobility: Without employment, people may struggle to move up the social ladder and achieve their career goals.
  • Decrease in government revenue: With fewer people working, there is less tax revenue for the government, which can lead to a decrease in funding for public services.
  • Decrease in consumer spending: When people are unemployed, they have less disposable income to spend on goods and services, leading to a decrease in consumer spending.
  • Decrease in innovation: When people are struggling to make ends meet, they may be less likely to invest in new ideas and innovations.

  • Decrease in mental and physical health: Unemployment can lead to stress, anxiety, and depression, which can have negative effects on both mental and physical health.



There are several causes of unemployment in Nigeria. Here are ten potential contributing factors:

  • Economic downturn: Nigeria has experienced economic challenges and recessions in the past, which can lead to job loss and unemployment.
  • Lack of job opportunities: There may be a limited number of job openings in Nigeria, especially in certain sectors or regions.
  • Education and skills gap: Some people may not have the education or skills needed to secure employment in their field of choice.
  • Corruption: Corruption can create a challenging business environment and discourage investment, leading to job loss and unemployment.
  • Political instability: Political instability can create uncertainty and disrupt economic activity, leading to job loss and unemployment.
  • Insufficient infrastructure: Poor infrastructure, including inadequate transportation and communication systems, can make it difficult for businesses to operate and create jobs.
  • Poor economic policies: Economic policies that are not supportive of business growth and development can hinder job creation and lead to unemployment.
  • Population growth: Nigeria has a rapidly growing population, which can put pressure on the job market and contribute to unemployment.

  • Technological advancements: As technology advances, certain jobs may become automated, leading to job loss and unemployment.
  • Natural disasters: Natural disasters, such as floods or earthquakes, can disrupt economic activity and lead to job loss and unemployment.



  • Both countries have uneven distribution of population dictated by factors such as relief, climate and presence of economic activities.
  • Both countries have a low mortality rate due to improved medical care.
  • In both countries, population density in urban areas is high.
  • Both countries have population policies to study the trends and give recommendations
  • In both countries there is use of family planning methods and contraceptives in effort to control population growth.

8 Factors influencing the distribution of population in Sweden

  • Rugged and mountainous landscape. this discourages agriculture and settlement. Such areas are characterized by low and scattered of population.

  • Fertile soils – the southern part of Sweden have fertile soils which favour agriculture and settlement therefore densely settled
  • Cold climate – if the Northern regions of Sweden experienced long winters with very low temperatures thus discouraging agriculture and settlement./ The southern parts of Sweden are warmer and summers are longer thus encouraging settlement/ Thus densely populated.
  • Forest vegetation- large portions of Canada have forest vegetation which hinders agriculture and settlement
  • Presence of numerous lakes – almost half of Sweden total land area is covered by water bodies thus reducing land for settlement.
  • Mining centres. They form ‘islands’ of high population. for instance , major iron ore mining areas like Grangesbery and Dennemora form enclaves of high population while the immediate neighbourhoods have very low population.
  • Urbanization. The majority of the Swedes live in urban areas


7 Factors influencing rapid population growth in Kenya

  • Early marriages: – Many people in Kenya get married and this allows them to a longer period of fertility resulting in many children.

  • Improved medical care: – This leads to higher chances of survival for mothers and infants as well as the general population thus increase the survival rates.
  • Improved diet: – This result s to better health for the entire population hence reducing the mortality rate.
  • Cultural beliefs: – Some cultures encourage large families due to the preference of one gender to the other. Some cultures discourage the use of contraceptives / family planning leading to couples getting many children.
  • Migration: – Due to political instability in Neighbouring countries eg Somali, Sudan there was an influx of foreigners which leads to high population of foreigners


6 Problems of ageing population

  • There may be a shortage of workers (not enough economically active)
  • If there is a shortage of workers there are less tax payers and the government receives less money
  • Old people tend to get more sick, so there will be an increase in pressure on hospitals
  • In many countries retired people can claim pensions off the government. If there are a lot of old
  • people this can be very expensive