7 problems facing coffee farming in Philippines

Coffee farming has been an important industry in the Philippines for centuries. The country is known for producing high-quality Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, which are grown in the northern regions of Luzon, particularly in the Cordillera mountain range. Coffee is also grown in other parts of the country, such as Mindanao and Visayas.

7 problems facing coffee farming in Philippines

Coffee farming in the Philippines is mostly done by small-scale farmers, who typically grow coffee alongside other crops such as vegetables and fruits. The coffee is usually grown in the shade of trees, which provide protection from the sun and help maintain soil fertility. The most commonly grown coffee varieties in the Philippines are Arabica, Robusta, and Excelsa.


  • Pests which destroy large parts of farms leading to losses e.g. termites.
  • Diseases which lead to poor quality output such as coffee wilt disease and coffee berry disease.
  • Limited land for coffee plantations due to ever increasing population.
  • Soil exhaustion due to monoculture leading to low and poor quality yields.
  • Competition with other coffee producing countries like Brazil and Ivory Coast leading to inadequate market.
  • Low prices and unstable coffee prices leading to price fluctuation on the world market which demoralizes the farmers.

  • Prolonged drought and hailstorms which destroy coffee flowers leading to low output.
  • Competition with other beverages e.g. tea, cocoa and vanilla which reduces demand.
  • Dangerous animals e.g. snakes, wasps and bees which attack the workers hence scaring them away.
  • Inadequate storage facilities which leads to losses due to rotting of the coffee and destruction by pests.
  • Coffee has a long gestation period of about 31/2 years until the first harvest which also demoralizes the farmers.

  • Shortage of extension workers to train people on how to attend to coffee properly.
  • Post-harvest losses also demoralize the farmers e.g. theft which leads to losses for the farmers.
  • Poor means of transport leading to market centers leading to delays in delivery.



The industrial sector is one of the most important sectors of the Philippine economy. It contributes about 30% of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). The industrial sector includes manufacturing, construction, and mining.

Manufacturing is the largest subsector of the industrial sector, accounting for about 20% of GDP. The main manufactured goods produced in the Philippines are garments, textiles, electronics, and food products.

Construction is the second-largest subsector of the industrial sector, accounting for about 7% of GDP. The construction industry is growing rapidly in the Philippines, driven by the government’s infrastructure program.

Mining is the third-largest subsector of the industrial sector, accounting for about 3% of GDP. The Philippines has a number of mineral resources, including copper, gold, and silver.


Industrial Growth and Export

The industrial sector holds significant economic importance for the Philippines due to its role in manufacturing goods for exports. As industrial growth expands, there is a corresponding increase in the production of goods that are suitable for foreign markets. This heightened production ultimately leads to the earning of foreign exchange through export activities. The influx of foreign exchange contributes to the country’s overall economic development by bolstering its foreign reserves. This earned foreign exchange can be reinvested into various developmental projects, such as improving infrastructure, healthcare, education, and public services. Thus, the industrial sector acts as a key driver of economic growth, enhancing the Philippines’ standing in the global economy.

Resource Exploitation and Job Creation

The industrial sector’s expansion has stimulated the utilization of local resources, including agricultural land, minerals, forests, water bodies, and other natural assets. This resource exploitation often leads to the creation of jobs in various related industries. As industries require these resources for their operations, local communities benefit from increased employment opportunities. This job creation not only generates income for the population but also reduces unemployment rates, fosters skills development, and contributes to an improved standard of living. Moreover, the utilization of local resources contributes to increased exports, thereby furthering the cycle of economic growth and foreign exchange earnings.

Infrastructure Development

The industrial sector’s growth is intertwined with the development of modern infrastructures in the Philippines. This expansion prompts the establishment of better transportation networks, including roads and railways, to facilitate the movement of goods and services. Additionally, the sector indirectly influences the growth of essential facilities such as health centers and educational institutions. These infrastructures benefit the entire population by enhancing access to healthcare and education services, thereby contributing to human capital development and overall societal well-being. The improvement in infrastructure also positively impacts trade and commerce, making the country more attractive for investment and trade partners.

Government Revenue Generation

The industrial sector plays a pivotal role in contributing to the government’s revenue through taxes, licenses, and other fees imposed on industries. This revenue generation enhances the government’s financial capacity to undertake critical initiatives, including infrastructure projects, social welfare programs, and public services. By generating revenue from the industrial sector, the government can address various developmental challenges, invest in sectors that require support, and foster overall economic growth.

Market for Raw Materials

The manufacturing industries within the industrial sector provide a valuable market for the raw materials produced in other sectors, particularly agriculture. The demand for these raw materials by manufacturing industries stimulates growth and innovation in the agricultural sector. This mutually beneficial relationship contributes to the development of both sectors, as higher demand for agricultural products encourages productivity improvements, technological advancements, and increased agricultural output. This, in turn, leads to increased income for farmers, rural development, and enhanced food security.

Employment Opportunities

The industrial sector in the Philippines plays a crucial role in generating diverse employment opportunities for a wide spectrum of individuals. From highly skilled engineers and chemists to middle management personnel and transporters, the sector offers jobs across various skill levels. Notably, a significant portion of the population finds employment in industries such as sugar factories and other manufacturing units. This influx of jobs not only contributes to financial stability but also leads to improved living standards for many households. The income earned from industrial employment uplifts families, enabling them to access better housing, healthcare, education, and other basic necessities. As a result, the industrial sector stands as a cornerstone of socio-economic development, fostering a more prosperous society.

Urban Growth and Concentration

The industrial sector’s significance extends beyond job creation to shaping the urban landscape. The concentration of industries has been a driving force behind the growth of urban centers. The demand for labor, resources, and infrastructure has led to the development and expansion of urban areas. This process is commonly observed as factories and manufacturing hubs attract a workforce seeking employment opportunities. As industrial clusters form, the surrounding regions experience an inflow of population, which in turn stimulates urbanization. The growth of urban centers has a cascading effect, enhancing infrastructural development, educational institutions, healthcare facilities, and overall quality of life for residents.

Skill Acquisition and Development

Industries have contributed significantly to the acquisition of skills among the workforce, encompassing both formal education and on-the-job training. The need for specialized skills within the industrial sector has spurred investments in education and training programs. Engineers, technicians, and other personnel gain expertise through formal education and specialized training, fostering a skilled labor force. This skilled workforce becomes an asset not only to the industries themselves but also to the broader economy. As industries continue to evolve, workers with acquired skills are better equipped to adapt to technological advancements and changing market demands, leading to sustained industrial development.

Tourism and Educational Opportunities

The industrial sector’s impact extends beyond domestic boundaries, attracting both local and foreign tourists for leisure and educational purposes. Factories and manufacturing units have become destinations for students at various educational levels who seek practical insights into industrial processes. These facilities offer guided tours and hands-on experiences, enriching students’ understanding of real-world applications. Moreover, the allure of witnessing large-scale manufacturing operations intrigues tourists, fostering interest in the industrial sector. This convergence of leisure and education not only contributes to the tourism industry but also enhances awareness and appreciation of the complexities involved in industrial production.



Fish farming or pisciculture involves the commercial breeding of fish, usually for food, in fish tanks or artificial enclosures such as fish ponds

There are two main types of fish farming in the Philippines: freshwater fish farming and marine fish farming.

  • Freshwater fish farming:¬†Freshwater fish farming is the most common type of fish farming in the Philippines. It is done in ponds, lakes, and rivers. The most common freshwater fish farmed in the Philippines are tilapia, carp, catfish, and milkfish.
  • Marine fish farming:¬†Marine fish farming is done in the ocean. It is a more capital-intensive type of fish farming, but it can produce higher yields. The most common marine fish farmed in the Philippines are shrimp, tuna, and grouper.

The following are factors that have favoured the development of fish farming in PHILIPPINES

Improvement in Research on Fisheries

Fish farming development in the Philippines has been favored by significant improvements in fisheries research. As studies have advanced, the need to establish ponds for controlled experiments and observations has grown. Researchers require controlled environments to study fish behavior, growth patterns, and reproduction. This necessity for controlled conditions has led to the establishment of fish farming ponds as essential research tools. As a result, fish farming has gained prominence as a means to both support research efforts and provide a practical approach to fisheries management.

Supportive Government Policy and Financing

A supportive government policy has played a crucial role in promoting fish farming in the Philippines. Recognizing the depletion of natural fishing grounds due to overfishing, the government has shifted focus towards sustainable aquaculture. This shift has been accompanied by financing initiatives that encourage individuals and communities to venture into fish farming. Financial incentives, loans, and grants have made it more feasible for aspiring fish farmers to invest in infrastructure, equipment, and fish stock.

Availability of Ready Fish Markets

The presence of both local urban fish markets and foreign export markets has been a driving force behind the growth of fish farming in the Philippines. This dual-market demand has provided farmers with a reliable outlet for their produce. As urban populations increase and consumer preferences shift towards healthier diets, the demand for fresh fish has risen. Furthermore, foreign markets have opened up opportunities for larger-scale production and increased economic gain, motivating farmers to engage in fish farming as a livelihood option.

Favorable Climate Conditions

The Philippines’ cool temperature and reliable rainfall have created an environment conducive to fish farming. These conditions support fish survival, growth, and reproduction. The presence of suitable climatic conditions reduces the need for extensive climate control measures in fish farming operations, making it more economically viable for farmers to establish and maintain ponds.

Diverse Fish Species Availability

The availability of various fish species, such as Tilapia, Bagrus, and Clarias, has contributed to the success of fish farming in the Philippines. The diversity of species allows farmers to choose those that are well-suited to their specific pond conditions and market demands. This flexibility enables farmers to optimize their production based on factors such as growth rates, market value, and consumer preferences.

Skilled and Semi-Skilled Labor Force

The presence of a skilled labor force, including graduates from universities, and semi-skilled labor provided by local communities has facilitated the establishment and management of fish farming ponds. Skilled individuals bring expertise in areas such as aquaculture management, water quality control, and disease prevention. The availability of semi-skilled labor in densely populated areas aids in day-to-day operations, contributing to the overall success of fish farming enterprises.

Local Production of Fish Feeds

The Philippines’ local production of fish feeds, including materials like maize bran and burnt bread, has been a significant factor in supporting fish growth and multiplication in fish farms. Access to locally produced feeds reduces dependence on expensive imported feeds, making fish farming a more cost-effective venture. These locally available feeds provide the necessary nutrients for fish growth, ensuring healthy stocks and efficient production processes.