Gold mining in Tanzania has been a significant contributor to the country’s economy and development. Here are 10 contributions of gold mining in Tanzania:

  1. Foreign Exchange Earnings: Gold mining is one of Tanzania’s leading foreign exchange earners. The revenue generated from gold exports contributes significantly to the country’s balance of payments and foreign reserves.
  2. Employment Creation: Gold mining provides employment opportunities to thousands of Tanzanians, both directly in the mines and indirectly in supporting industries and services.
  3. Infrastructure Development: Gold mining companies often invest in infrastructure development in the regions where they operate. This includes road construction, water supply projects, and other community development initiatives.
  4. Tax Revenue: The gold mining sector contributes a substantial amount of tax revenue to the Tanzanian government, helping to fund public services and development programs.
  5. Local Economic Development: Gold mining activities stimulate local economic development in mining regions by creating business opportunities for local suppliers and service providers.
  6. Skills Development: The gold mining sector offers training and skills development opportunities for Tanzanians, contributing to the growth of a skilled workforce in the country.
  7. Social Investment: Many gold mining companies engage in social investment projects, such as building schools, health centers, and community facilities, to improve the well-being of local communities.
  8. Technology Transfer: The introduction of modern mining technologies and practices by international mining companies enhances technical knowledge and expertise within the local mining industry.
  9. Export Diversification: Gold mining diversifies Tanzania’s export portfolio, reducing dependency on a few primary commodities and promoting economic stability.
  10. Foreign Direct Investment: The gold mining sector attracts foreign direct investment into Tanzania, stimulating economic growth and industrial development.

While gold mining brings substantial benefits to Tanzania, it also comes with challenges, such as environmental concerns, land disputes, and the need to ensure that mining activities align with sustainable and responsible practices. To maximize the positive contributions of gold mining, it is essential for the government and mining companies to work together in addressing these challenges and promoting a sustainable and inclusive mining sector.


Gold mining in Tanzania can have significant environmental impacts, both at the local and global levels. Here are ten environmental impacts associated with gold mining in Tanzania:

  1. Deforestation: Gold mining often involves clearing large areas of forested land for mining operations, leading to deforestation and loss of biodiversity.
  2. Water Pollution: Mining activities can contaminate water sources with heavy metals and chemicals used in the extraction process, affecting aquatic life and water quality.
  3. Soil Erosion: The removal of vegetation and disruption of the soil during mining can result in soil erosion, leading to the degradation of agricultural lands and increased sedimentation in water bodies.
  4. Mercury Contamination: Artisanal gold mining, which uses mercury to extract gold, can lead to mercury pollution in the environment, posing health risks to humans and wildlife.
  5. Air Pollution: Gold mining activities can release dust and harmful pollutants into the air, affecting air quality and potentially causing respiratory problems in nearby communities.
  6. Habitat Destruction: Gold mining can destroy natural habitats, impacting wildlife and plant species and leading to the loss of biodiversity.
  7. Acid Mine Drainage: In some cases, gold mining can result in acid mine drainage, where acidic water emerges from the mine and contaminates nearby water bodies, harming aquatic life.
  8. Land Subsidence: Mining activities can cause land subsidence, leading to the formation of sinkholes and destabilization of the landscape.
  9. Noise Pollution: The machinery and equipment used in gold mining can produce noise pollution, disrupting wildlife and affecting nearby communities.
  10. Global Climate Impact: The carbon emissions associated with gold mining, including transportation and energy use, contribute to global climate change.

Addressing these environmental impacts requires implementing strict environmental regulations, promoting sustainable mining practices, and investing in environmental monitoring and mitigation measures. Mining companies must adhere to best practices to minimize their environmental footprint, and the government must enforce regulations effectively to protect the environment and promote sustainable development in the mining sector. Additionally, promoting responsible gold sourcing and supporting initiatives for responsible mining can help minimize the environmental impacts of gold mining in Tanzania and globally.

Conditions favoring coffee farming in Tanzania

Coffee farming in Tanzania is a significant industry that contributes significantly to the country’s economy. Tanzania is one of the largest coffee producers in Africa, with coffee farming being a vital source of income for many smallholder farmers in the country.

Coffee farming in Tanzania is mainly concentrated in the Northern regions of Kilimanjaro, Arusha, and Mbeya. The country primarily produces Arabica coffee, known for its mild flavor and low acidity, and Robusta coffee, known for its strong and bold taste.


  • Altitude: Most of Tanzania’s coffee is grown at high altitudes between 1,000 and 2,000 meters above sea level. High altitude provides ideal growing conditions for coffee, which prefers cooler temperatures and well-drained soils.
  • Climate: Tanzania has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons, providing the ideal conditions for coffee farming. The wet season, from March to May and November to December, provides adequate rainfall, while the dry season, from June to September, promotes flowering and fruiting.
  • Soil: Tanzania’s volcanic soil is rich in minerals and organic matter, providing the essential nutrients that coffee plants need to grow and produce high-quality coffee beans.
  • Water supply: Coffee farming requires a reliable water supply, and Tanzania has several rivers, lakes, and underground water sources that provide adequate water for coffee farming.
  • Sunlight: Coffee plants require adequate sunlight to grow and produce high-quality coffee beans. Tanzania’s tropical climate provides plenty of sunlight throughout the year.
  • Labor force: Tanzania has a large labor force, which is essential for coffee farming, particularly for smallholder farmers who rely on family labor and hired labor during the harvest season.
  • Political stability: Tanzania has a stable political environment, which is essential for investment in the coffee industry, providing a conducive business environment for coffee farmers and investors.
  • Infrastructure: Tanzania has a well-developed transport infrastructure, including roads, railways, and ports, providing easy access to local and international markets.
  • Supportive policies: The Tanzanian government has implemented supportive policies and programs to promote coffee farming, including providing access to credit, inputs, and training for smallholder farmers.
  • Market access: Tanzania has access to regional and international markets, providing opportunities for coffee farmers to export their produce and earn foreign exchange. The country is a member of the International Coffee Organization, which helps to promote global coffee trade and market access for coffee-producing countries.



Gold mining in Tanzania faces several challenges that can impact the industry’s development and sustainability. Here are ten problems facing gold mining in Tanzania:

  1. Illegal Mining: Illegal artisanal and small-scale gold mining activities are widespread in Tanzania. These illegal operations often operate outside regulations, leading to environmental degradation and revenue losses for the government.
  2. Environmental Impact: Gold mining can have significant environmental impacts, such as deforestation, water pollution, and soil degradation. Inadequate environmental management and weak enforcement of regulations contribute to these issues.
  3. Land Conflicts: Gold mining activities can lead to land conflicts between mining companies, local communities, and indigenous groups. Disputes over land rights, compensation, and resettlement often arise, causing social tensions.
  4. Infrastructure Deficits: Some gold mining regions in Tanzania lack adequate infrastructure, such as reliable transportation networks and access to electricity and water, which can hinder mining operations.
  5. Labor Issues: Labor-related challenges, such as inadequate working conditions, safety concerns, and disputes between mining companies and workers, can impact productivity and lead to labor unrest.
  6. Tax Evasion and Revenue Leakage: In some cases, there have been allegations of tax evasion and revenue leakage in the gold mining sector, leading to potential revenue losses for the government.
  7. Resource Depletion: The exhaustion of easily accessible gold reserves in some areas may lead to diminishing yields, making it challenging for mining companies to maintain profitable operations.
  8. Volatility in Gold Prices: Fluctuations in global gold prices can impact the profitability and viability of gold mining operations in Tanzania.
  9. Inadequate Local Community Benefits: Some mining communities may not fully benefit from gold mining activities due to limited local procurement, inadequate social investment, and limited job opportunities for local residents.
  10. Regulatory Uncertainty: Changes in mining regulations or uncertainties in the legal framework can create uncertainties for mining companies and may deter potential investors.

Addressing these challenges requires a collaborative effort between the government, mining companies, local communities, and other stakeholders. Sustainable and responsible mining practices, effective enforcement of regulations, community engagement, and transparency in revenue management are essential for overcoming the problems facing gold mining in Tanzania.


Mbeya City, located in Tanzania, serves various functions that contribute to its role as a regional hub and center of economic activity. Here are nine key functions of Mbeya City:

  1. Administrative Center: Mbeya City serves as an administrative hub for the region. It houses government offices, including the regional administration and local government offices, providing administrative services and facilitating governance processes.
  2. Economic Center: Mbeya City plays a crucial role in the regional economy. It serves as a commercial and business center, hosting various businesses, markets, and financial institutions. The city provides employment opportunities and attracts investment, contributing to economic growth and development in the region.
  3. Trade and Commerce: Mbeya City serves as a major trading hub in the region. It hosts bustling markets where goods from different parts of Tanzania and neighboring countries are bought and sold. The city’s strategic location near the borders with Zambia and Malawi further enhances its significance as a trading center.
  4. Transportation Hub: Mbeya City serves as a transportation hub, connecting various regions within Tanzania and neighboring countries. It has well-developed road networks, including major highways, which facilitate the movement of goods and people. The city also has a railway station and an airport, further enhancing its transportation infrastructure.
  5. Educational Center: Mbeya City is home to several educational institutions, including universities, colleges, and schools. These institutions provide quality education and attract students from across the region. The city’s educational facilities contribute to human capital development and knowledge dissemination.
  6. Healthcare Services: Mbeya City is an important center for healthcare services in the region. It houses hospitals, clinics, and specialized medical facilities, providing healthcare services to residents and serving as a referral center for surrounding areas.
  7. Cultural and Social Center: Mbeya City serves as a center for cultural activities and social gatherings. It hosts cultural events, festivals, and exhibitions, promoting cultural exchange and preserving traditional practices. The city’s social amenities, such as recreational facilities, parks, and entertainment venues, contribute to the social well-being of residents.
  8. Tourism and Recreation: Mbeya City is located in a scenic region with natural attractions, including mountains, waterfalls, and national parks. The city serves as a gateway to popular tourist destinations such as the Mbeya Highlands, Kitulo Plateau, and Ruaha National Park. It provides accommodation, dining, and recreational facilities for tourists, contributing to the tourism industry in the region.
  9. Research and Innovation: Mbeya City hosts research institutions and innovation centers that promote scientific research and technological advancements. These institutions focus on various fields such as agriculture, environment, and healthcare, contributing to knowledge generation and innovation-driven development.

These functions collectively contribute to Mbeya City’s role as a regional center of economic, administrative, educational, and cultural importance in Tanzania. The city’s strategic location, infrastructure, and services make it a significant hub for trade, commerce, and connectivity in the region.

Form three students at Nguvumali secondary school would like to conduct a simple chain survey around their school compound and measure the height of the big gully near the headmaster’s office. Describe the significance of survey in Tanzania

The significance of survey in Tanzania, or any other geographical context, is multifaceted and encompasses various aspects of development, planning, and resource management.

Here are three key significance of survey in Tanzania:

Infrastructure Development

Survey plays a crucial role in infrastructure development projects in Tanzania. It helps in determining the most suitable locations for roads, bridges, buildings, and other infrastructure facilities. By conducting surveys, engineers and planners can gather accurate data on topography, land features, and existing structures, enabling them to design and construct infrastructure that is safe, efficient, and sustainable.

Land Use Planning and Management

Surveying is essential for effective land use planning and management in Tanzania. It helps in identifying and demarcating land boundaries, determining land ownership, and mapping out different land uses such as agricultural areas, residential zones, protected areas, and industrial sites. Surveys provide critical information for land tenure systems, land registration, and land administration, facilitating sustainable land management practices.

Natural Resource Management

Tanzania is blessed with diverse natural resources, including forests, wildlife, water bodies, and minerals. Surveying is crucial for the management and conservation of these resources. It helps in mapping and monitoring forest cover, wildlife habitats, water sources, and mineral deposits. Surveys also support environmental impact assessments, biodiversity conservation efforts, and sustainable resource extraction practices.

Disaster Management

Surveying plays a significant role in disaster management and risk assessment in Tanzania. It helps in identifying areas prone to natural hazards such as floods, landslides, and earthquakes. By conducting surveys, authorities can gather data on vulnerable areas, assess potential risks, and develop appropriate strategies for disaster preparedness, response, and mitigation.

Urban Planning and Development

With rapid urbanization, surveying is crucial for effective urban planning and development in Tanzanian cities and towns. Surveys provide data on population distribution, land use patterns, infrastructure needs, and transportation networks. This information supports urban planners in making informed decisions regarding housing, public services, transportation systems, and sustainable urban development.

In summary, surveying plays a vital role in Tanzania’s development by providing accurate spatial data for infrastructure development, land use planning, natural resource management, disaster management, and urban planning. It enables informed decision-making, promotes sustainable development practices, and contributes to the overall socio-economic growth of the country.


The forest is among the natural resources Tanzania has been naturally gifted. Explain (8) values of forest resources to the Tanzanian community

Forest resources in Tanzania provide numerous values and benefits to the Tanzanian community.

Here are eight important values of forest resources in Tanzania:

Biodiversity Conservation

Forests in Tanzania support rich biodiversity, hosting a wide variety of plant and animal species, including rare and endemic species. Forests act as habitats, providing shelter, food, and breeding grounds for diverse flora and fauna. Preserving forest resources helps protect the unique biodiversity of Tanzania, ensuring the survival of important species.

Carbon Sequestration and Climate Regulation

Forests play a crucial role in mitigating climate change by acting as carbon sinks. Through the process of photosynthesis, trees absorb carbon dioxide and store carbon, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Forests also contribute to regulating local and regional climates by influencing temperature, humidity, and precipitation patterns.

Provision of Timber and Non-timber Forest Products

Forests in Tanzania serve as a source of valuable timber for construction, furniture, and other wood-based industries. Additionally, forests provide non-timber forest products such as medicinal plants, fruits, nuts, honey, resins, and fibers. These resources contribute to livelihoods, income generation, and traditional cultural practices for local communities.

Water Catchment and Watershed Protection

Forests act as natural water catchments, capturing rainfall and regulating water flow in rivers, streams, and underground aquifers. They help to maintain water quality by filtering pollutants and reducing soil erosion. Forested watersheds provide a vital source of clean water for drinking, agriculture, and various economic activities.

Ecotourism and Recreation

Tanzania’s forests, including national parks and nature reserves, attract tourists from around the world. Visitors come to explore the diverse ecosystems, go on wildlife safaris, hike through forest trails, and experience the beauty of nature. Ecotourism in forests contributes to local economies, job creation, and community development.

Cultural and Spiritual Significance

Forests hold significant cultural and spiritual value for many Tanzanian communities. Forests are often considered sacred places, associated with cultural practices, rituals, and traditional beliefs. They provide spaces for community gatherings, ceremonies, and cultural events, fostering a sense of identity and connection to the land.

Soil Conservation and Erosion Control

Forests play a crucial role in preventing soil erosion and maintaining soil fertility. The tree canopy and forest floor protect the soil from the impact of heavy rainfall, reducing runoff and promoting water infiltration. Forest roots help bind the soil, preventing erosion and preserving valuable topsoil.

Employment and Livelihoods

Forest resources in Tanzania provide employment opportunities and livelihoods for many people, especially in rural communities. Forest-based industries, such as timber harvesting, non-timber forest product collection, and ecotourism, generate income and support local economies. Additionally, forests contribute to subsistence livelihoods through activities like fuelwood collection, beekeeping, and traditional medicine practices.

These values of forest resources in Tanzania highlight their critical importance for ecological, social, cultural, and economic well-being. Sustainable management and conservation of forests are essential to ensure the continued provision of these benefits for current and future generations.


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