Explain the functions of the following survey tools:

  • (i) Arrow
  • ii) Ranging rod
  • (ii) Pegs
  • (iv) Beacon


The functions of the survey tools you mentioned are as follows:

(i) Arrow: The arrow is used as a pointing tool in land surveying. It helps surveyors precisely indicate a specific point or target in the field. The arrow is typically attached to a staff or a pole and can be rotated or adjusted to align with the desired direction or feature being referenced. It assists in accurate measurement and marking of points during surveying activities.

(ii) Ranging Rod: A ranging rod, also known as a leveling rod or a leveling staff, is a tool used to measure vertical distances or elevations during land surveying. It is a long, rectangular rod with graduations or markings along its length, typically in feet or meters. Surveyors use the ranging rod to determine height differences between different points on the land surface, helping in contour mapping, leveling, and profile measurements.

(iii) Pegs: Pegs, also known as stakes or markers, are essential tools in land surveying for marking specific points or boundaries on the ground. Surveyors drive pegs into the ground to establish control points, demarcate property boundaries, define survey lines, or mark reference points for measurements. Pegs are usually made of wood or metal and are placed securely in the ground to provide visible markers for surveying purposes.

(iv) Beacon: A beacon, in the context of land surveying, is a prominent and easily identifiable marker or structure that serves as a reference point or control station. It is typically a tall and conspicuous feature, such as a tower, monument, or tall building. Beacons help surveyors establish control networks, triangulation points, or reference stations for surveying measurements. They provide a stable and visible reference for positioning and orientation during surveying operations.

These survey tools play crucial roles in various aspects of land surveying, including measurement, marking, reference point establishment, and data collection. Each tool has a specific function and contributes to the accuracy and efficiency of surveying activities.

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