# CSEE NECTA 2021 QN 5 RESEARCH

JUMA decided to carry out research on the performance of the student in his school using few students who represent others

(a) how is the process used by juma to select the representative called

(b)briefly describe the process named in (a)

(c) explain two main types of the process named in (a)

(c)mention 4 categories of one type of process explained in (c)

(a) The process used by Juma to select the representative students is called sampling.

(b) Sampling is the process of selecting a subset of individuals or elements from a larger population to represent that population. In this case, Juma is selecting a few students to represent the entire student population in the research on performance. The selected students should be representative of the characteristics and diversity present in the larger population.

(c) The two main types of sampling processes are:

1. Probability sampling: Probability sampling involves selecting individuals from a population in a random and unbiased manner, giving each member of the population an equal chance of being selected. This type of sampling ensures that the sample is representative of the population. Examples of probability sampling techniques include simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and systematic sampling.
2. Non-probability sampling: Non-probability sampling involves selecting individuals from a population in a non-random manner. This type of sampling does not provide an equal chance of selection for all individuals. Non-probability sampling is often used when it is challenging to obtain a random sample or when specific characteristics of the population need to be emphasized. Examples of non-probability sampling techniques include convenience sampling, purposive sampling, quota sampling, and snowball sampling.

(d) Categories of non-probability sampling explained in (c):

1. Convenience sampling: This involves selecting individuals who are readily available and easily accessible to the researcher. It is a convenient and practical approach, but it may introduce bias as the sample may not represent the entire population.
2. Purposive sampling: In this method, the researcher selects individuals who possess specific characteristics or expertise relevant to the research topic. The sample is chosen intentionally to gain insights from knowledgeable or experienced individuals.
3. Quota sampling: Quota sampling involves selecting individuals based on specific quotas or predetermined criteria, such as age, gender, or educational background. The researcher ensures that the sample reflects the proportions of these criteria in the population.
4. Snowball sampling: Snowball sampling is a method where initial participants are selected, and then they help in identifying and recruiting additional participants. This technique is useful when the target population is difficult to reach, and existing participants can assist in accessing others who meet the research criteria.

It’s important to note that while non-probability sampling techniques can be valuable in certain research contexts, they may introduce biases and limitations compared to probability sampling methods that provide a more representative sample.

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