There was land conflict between villagers of Shangu and the Headmaster of Shangu Secondary School. The village Chairperson decided to invite a survey team who used chain/tape survey to determine the boundaries of the school compound.
(a) Describe five instruments they used in surveying the school compound.
(b) Explain three procedures they followed during the survey process.


(a) The survey team would have used several instruments in the chain/tape survey to determine the boundaries of the school compound. Here are five instruments commonly used in such surveys:

  1. Measuring Chain or Tape: A measuring chain or tape is the primary instrument used for linear measurements. It consists of a chain or tape marked with length increments (usually in feet or meters) and is used to measure distances between points on the ground.
  2. Ranging Rods or Staffs: Ranging rods or staffs are used to mark and locate points on the ground. These are long poles or rods with markings to indicate height or distance. They are placed at specific points during the survey to mark reference points or endpoints of measured distances.
  3. Leveling Instrument: A leveling instrument, such as a spirit level or an automatic level, is used to determine the height or elevation of different points on the ground. It helps in establishing a level reference line or benchmark, which is essential for accurate measurements and establishing boundaries.
  4. Compass or Theodolite: A compass or theodolite is used to measure angles and directions. It helps in determining the orientation of lines or boundaries and provides precise angular measurements for plotting the boundaries of the school compound.
  5. Survey Markers: Survey markers, such as metal stakes or pegs, are used to permanently mark the boundaries or reference points identified during the survey. These markers help in demarcating the boundaries of the school compound and serve as reference points for future surveys or land disputes.

(b) The survey team would have followed several procedures during the survey process. Here are three common procedures:

  1. Reconnaissance: Before conducting the actual survey, the team would have conducted a reconnaissance of the area. This involves gathering information about the existing boundaries, land features, and any available records or documents related to the school compound. It helps in understanding the context and potential challenges of the survey.
  2. Establishing Control Points: The team would have established control points, which are accurately surveyed points with known coordinates or reference marks. These control points serve as a basis for measurements and help ensure the accuracy and consistency of the survey. Control points are typically established using advanced surveying techniques, such as GPS (Global Positioning System).
  3. Measurement and Plotting: Using the instruments mentioned above, the team would have measured the distances, angles, and elevations required to determine the boundaries of the school compound. They would have recorded these measurements systematically and then plotted them on a survey plan or map. The survey plan would depict the boundaries, control points, and any other relevant information necessary to define the school compound accurately.

Overall, the procedures followed in the survey process are designed to ensure accuracy, consistency, and fairness in determining the boundaries of the school compound and resolving the land conflict between the villagers and the Headmaster of Shangu Secondary School.

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