Bunyoro was under Bito rulers and sprung up after the collapse of the Chwezi Empire.
Local traditions state that Isingoma Rukidi Mpuga was the founder of Bunyoro kingdom.
Bunyoro was a loose confederation of provinces or Ssazas ruled by the chiefs.
The growth and expansion of Bunyoro greatly depended on its rulers i.e. Abakama e.g. Omukama Kamurasi (1852- 1869) and Omukama Kabalega (1870 – 1897).
The Kingdom stretched as far as Buganda, Toro and Ankole in the west to Busoga in the East and West Nile in the North.
Factors for the growth and expansion of the Bunyoro Kingdom
- Presence of able leadership i.e. Bunyoro was gifted with strong, active and ambitious leaders for example Omukama Kamurasi and Omukama Kabalega who expanded the Kingdom.
- The Kingdom had a highly developed centralized system of administration which ensured easy administration.
- The strong army of Abarusula built by Kabalega also contributed to the growth of Bunyoro. It was armed with guns got through trade with the Khartoumers and Coastal Arabs.
- Bunyoro was also gifted with fertile soils which ensured constant supply of Bananas, Yams and millet to sustain the population.
- Her good climate with heavy rainfall also supported agriculture to sustain the population.
- Bunyoro also expanded because it constantly raided her weak neighbours for example Ankole, Toro and Busoga.
- Bunyoro also participated in trade with her neighbours and also participated in the long-distance trade (L.D.T) with the Arabs and Khartoumers where she got guns.
- Bunyoro had Iron deposits and through Iron working she was able to make spears and arrows for defense.
- Bunyoro also had plenty of salt deposits which she used to exchange with her neighbours.
- The decline of the Chwezi dynasty also favoured the growth and expansion of the Bunyoro Kingdom. This gave a chance to Rukidi Mpuga to start up his own empire i.e. Bunyoro.