(i) Kickbacks and corrupt payment-paid by contractor after receiving payment
for winning project
(ii) Corrupt influence-paying over market rates, buying more items than needed,
narrowing specification to favor particular bidders
(iii) Collusion and manipulation by bidders-involve groups agreeing to submit
complementary bids e.g. Absence to public bids opening, deny of bid
extension with no reasons
(iv) Billing frauds-Intentional submission of false, duplicate of inflated invoices
by bidder in collaboration with buyer.
(v) Conflict of interests-Non-disclosure: Done by members of the procurement
teams who fail declare interest with the contractors.
(vi) Delivery frauds-This may be variation abuse, fraudulent contractors and