The Vienna Congress ignored or suffocated nationalism in Europe when it put some states under foreign domination. In the North of France for example, the Belgians were put under the Dutch to create a buffer state. The Italian states were also put under Austria and a big part of Poland was given to Russia. This eventually contributed to the outbreak of nationalistic revolutions in 1830 and 1848 as the above states demanded for their independence.
It also restored unpopular legitimate rulers in Europe. These old rulers who were restored in France, Portugal, Spain and Naples among other countries were the worst rulers Europe had ever had because they exercised oppression over the subjects and total dictatorship. Consequently, revolutions were staged in the above countries from the 1820’s up to 1848 to overthrow the restored legitimate rulers. These revolutions contributed to political unrest which undermined peace in Europe.
The Vienna Congress (settlement) delayed the unification of Italy. Italy as a United Kingdom emerged on the political map of Europe in 1871 which was fifty six years after the Vienna Congress. This was because the congress disunited Italy by the creation of states under different rulers. For example, there was the Pope in the Popal states, King Ferdinand I in Naples and Sicily as well as Austria in Lombardy and Venetia among others. It was therefore difficult to have a single Italian state under one ruler until 1871.
It also delayed the unification of Germany. Germany as a single state also emerged on the political map of Europe in 1871 just like Italy. The congressmen at Vienna had left the German state of Prussia as an independent kingdom while the other thirty nine (39) German states that were formed into the German Confederation or Union were put under the Austrian control. The Germans therefore took long to fight and undo the work of the Vienna Congress or Settlement so as to a united German nation.
The Vienna Congress ignored small states. Although all European states attended, throughout the congress the discussions and decisions were dominated by the four big powers that included Russia, Britain, Austria and Prussia. This therefore caused discontent and unpopularity of the settlement because the wishes of the small powers were ignored.
It suffocated liberalism in Europe. In the kingdom of Naples for example, King Ferdinand I was restored without a constitution. Consequently, Ferdinand I ruled Naples as a dictator yet in 1812, Naples had been granted a liberal constitution by Napoleon Bonaparte I. Consequently, in 1821 a revolution broke out in Naples demanding for liberal reforms like freedom of worship, press and fair trial among other liberties.
The Vienna Congress promoted the influence or dominance of Prince Metternich in Europe. Since Austria had hosted the congress, Metternich took advantage of this to chair the discussions. This enabled Metternich to dominate Europe between 1815 and 1848. However, while in charge of European affairs, Metternich suppressed liberalism and nationalism especially in the Italian and German states that were under Austria. This partly contributed to the outbreak of liberal and nationalistic revolutions between 1820 and 1848 which undermined peace in Europe.
The Vienna Congress also brought Russia into European affairs. This later caused conflicts between the Western European powers and Russia especially in Eastern Europe. At Vienna Russia was given territories in Eastern Europe like Poland. Russia later used this chance to annex more territories in Eastern Europe from the Ottoman or Turkish Empire so as to gain access to the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, Russia conflicted with the Western powers like Britain because Britain feared that Russia would affect the British Sea route to her commercial empire in the Far East.
The Vienna congress only focused on France and ignored the Ottoman or Turkish Empire. Located in Eastern Europe, the Ottoman Empire was facing many problems by 1815 but the delegates at Vienna completely ignored this part of Europe. For example, the conquered states in the empire like Greece, Serbia and Bosnia among others were demanding for independence but which the Vienna congress didn’t grant. Similarly, Russia was not restricted from intervening in the affairs of this empire which was in her neighbourhood. Russia therefore started doing so and this led to conflicts between Russia and other powers like Britain.