Both simple and modern methods are used for catching fish in Africa.
SIMPLE METHODS OF CATCHING FISH
- Spearing, use of bows and arrows, and the use of poison are the simplest methods of
catching fish. However in many countries they are dying out.
- Use of light: Fishermen lower the open net into the water and shine a lantern above the water which attracts swarms of small fish. The nets are then quickly scooped up into the boat. This method is used for catching fish such as Dagga in L. Tanganyika.
- Use of baskets: There are different methods of catching fish using baskets
(a) Baskets are placed in water and people are made to stamp their way through the water to frighten the fish into the baskets where they are caught.
(b) Another basket method involves the use of cone shaped baskets which are held in swiftly moving waters so that unsuspecting fish are caught and lifted out before they can escape.
- Hook and line method: It involves a line carrying a bait. It can only catch one fish at a time.
- Beach seining: This method is used in the shallow waters where nets are aerated from the shore. One end of the net is tied on the canoe and is cast into the water while the other end is held at the shore. Ropes are pulled from the shore to get the fish trapped. This method is common along West African coasts e.g. in Ghana and Nigeria.
MODERN METHODS OF CATCHING FISH
- Long lining: This involves the use of a long line of rope that trails behind the boat. On the rope, hundreds of baited hooks on several strings which are thrown in water. The rope is then pulled back into the ship or boat and the fish are removed from the hooks.
- Purse seining: This involves the use of two boats, one large and one small with gill nets. The nets are supported at the top by floats and at the bottom by weights.
The small boat suspends the net in the water by pulling it around a shoal of fish. The
fish get caught by the gills within the net. The fish is then pulled into the big boat and
transported to the shore.
- Trawling: This involves the use of a cone shaped bag which is dragged along behind the ship. The fish get caught as the mouth of the trawl net is open. The trawl net is then closed and the fish is emptied into the ship.