Horticulture is the intensive cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers for sale. It is similar to market gardening only that in market gardening, flowers are not cultivated.


Horticulture involves the application of scientific knowledge and techniques to grow and maintain plants for both commercial and non-commercial purposes. It includes activities such as soil preparation, planting, watering, fertilizing, pest and disease control, pruning, and harvesting. Horticultural practices can be applied in a range of settings, including home gardens, commercial farms, urban landscapes, and research institutions.

The field of horticulture encompasses several specialized areas:

  • Pomology: Focuses on the cultivation of fruit-bearing trees and plants, such as apples, oranges, peaches, and grapes.
  • Olericulture: Concentrates on the cultivation of vegetables, including leafy greens, root crops, and cruciferous vegetables.
  • Floriculture: Involves the production of ornamental plants, including flowers and foliage plants, for aesthetic purposes, landscaping, and the floral industry.

  • Landscape Horticulture: Deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of outdoor landscapes, including parks, gardens, and public spaces.
  • Nursery Management: Involves the propagation and production of plants in nurseries for sale to customers, including both ornamental and fruiting plants.
  • Medicinal Horticulture: Focuses on the cultivation of plants with medicinal properties, including herbs, medicinal flowers, and plants used in traditional medicine.

Horticulture plays a vital role in providing food, enhancing landscapes, preserving biodiversity, and promoting environmental sustainability. It contributes to the supply of fresh produce, supports local economies, and improves the quality of life by creating aesthetically pleasing environments. Additionally, horticulture is closely linked to research and innovation in areas such as plant breeding, biotechnology, and sustainable farming practices.

Overall, horticulture combines science, art, and practical skills to cultivate and manage plants for various purposes, ranging from food production to beautification, health, and well-being.


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