The following are the stages of conducting research.
i/ Problem identification
iii/ Literature review
iv/ Formulation of hypothesis
v/ Research designing
vi/ Data collection
vii/ Data analysis
viii/ Hypothesis testing
ix/ Data interpretation and preservation
x/ Report writing
i) PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
1. The research problem must be carefully selected and come from the researcher’s mind.
2. Must be clear, precise and meaningful.
4. The research problem must be short and clear to avoid vague and ambiguity.
5. It must have variables.
Research problem is from the following sources
a) Personal experience
b) Conclusion from various theories
c) Literature reviews. Practical issues
d) Deductive and inductive reasoning
ii) PRE SURVEYING
iii) LITERATURE REVIEW
These involve readings of various publications to know what other scholars/researchers have done about what you are investigating.
It enables the researcher to gain experience, to decide a good method to be a used, to identify the weakness and success of other researchers.
Sources of literature reviews are journals/reports, books, internet.
iv) FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
This is an assumption used on what one expects to find out in the field It can be either true or false or Hypothesis is a prediction of outcome of the results.
It is the statement of expected results. The research hypothesis is usually tested before the study begins. e.g Poor students classrooms attendance results to poor academic performance.
The hypothesis are ; -Involvement of students in economic activities. -Poor family income. -Poor parental care.
Types of Research hypothesis
1. Null hypothesis – Is the one that is stated in negation i.e. it indicates no relationship between the variables.
2. Alternative hypothesis – Is the one stated to indicate the actual expectation. it indicates the relationship between the variables.
(v) RESEARCH DESIGNING
This is the framework of the research.
This is the arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aim to combine relevance to the research purpose. It is the conceptual structure within which the study is conducted.
(vi) DATA COLLECTION
It involves the collection of various information in field research.
(vii) DATA ANALYSIS
The stage involves the following processes editing, coding, classification and tabulation of collected data.
(viii) DATA INTERPRETATION
After getting the right information the analyze data is interpreted in different statistical graphs, charts, figures, etc. That can be understood by everyone
(x) REPORT WRITING
Is the last step in research where a researcher communicates his or her findings to other researchers or the public.