- S. Europe and N. Africa areas bordering Mediterranean Sea.
- Around Cape Town on S.W end of Africa.
- Central coast of California.
- Around Perth in S.W Australia.
- Forests are open woodlands.
- Many trees are deciduous.
- Some trees are evergreen e.g. oak
- There is woody scrub vegetation in areas which are dry and with poor soils which is called marquis in France, Chaparral in California and Machia in Italy.
- Many plants are sweet smelling (aromatic) e.g. rosemary, lavender, oleander, broom and myrtle.
- Many trees are xerophytes e.g.
- Trees have long tap roots to reach the water deep below during long dry spells.
- Waxy leaves to reduce transpiration
- Storing water in their thick leaves or stems
- Small spiny leaves
- Types of trees are olive, sweet chestnut, beech, cedar, cypress, sequoia, eucalyptus