• European colonialism and the exploitative policies led to the development of PAM. These policies were the same in all African countries and they compelled the blacks to share experiences and lay strategies that brought them together to fight colonialism jointly.

  • The influence of the blacks in the diaspora like WEB Dubois, William Sylvester, Marcus Garvey. These mobilized the Africans and organized conferences to show them the need for unity and chase the colonial masters for African independence i.e. in Portuguese colonies, South Africa and Zimbabwe.
  • The impact of the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 led to the growth of the Pan
    Africanism. Ethiopia served as African model for independence and confirmed African solidarity evidenced by the strikes in west Africa led by Nnamdi Azikiwe hence it inspired the African continent to help Ethiopians to restore their independence in 1941.
  • The role of the Manchester Conference in 1945 greatly influenced the development of Pan Africanism. This conference was organized by WEB Dubois assisted by Nkrumah and it was vastly attended by African delegates. The conference inspired Africans to become militaristic in order to get independence, it equipped African leaders with leadership skills and encouraged African nationalists to form political parties.
  • The renewed activities of WASU in 1945 led to the development of Pan Africanism. This body identified itself with all Africans that were struggling for their independence; they extended moral, financial and military support to the suffering African’s leading to the development of PAM.

  • The impact of the apartheid regime in South Africa since 1948 led to the development of Pan Africanism. This was discriminative and segregative that made the people of South Africa to suffer in established Bantustans where life was very hard. Therefore African countries under OAU and the Front line states offered assistance to help South Africa get its independence leading to Pan Africanism.
  • The role of Egyptian revolution under Nasser in 1952 led to the development of PAM Nasser upon getting complete independence for Egypt, extended support to liberation movements i.e. FLN of Algeria, offered radio Cairo to be used by the MAU MAU fighters, provided asylum to suffering Africans like Musaazi of Uganda hence Pan Africanism.
  • The positive impact of the Bandung Conference in 1955 influenced the development of PAM. This conference was attended by African Nationalists like Nasser, Jomo Kenyatta, Kamuzu Banda, it brought Africans together, consolidated their unity and increased their commitment for independence hence PAM.
  • Ghana’s independence in 1957 led to the development of PAM. Ghana’s independence under Nkrumah made a strong stride in African history by helping African countries like Guinea conakry through financial aid using the budget of Ghana, this forced Africans to form close ties like Ghana-Guinea, Mali Union.

  • The independence of Guinea conakry/role of Sekou Toure led to PAM. Sekou Toure
    encouraged Africans to form unions and federations that would address African’s problems. He adopted African socialism that was embraced by Julius Nyerere under ujaama, this brought Africans together to promote economic prosperity that finally weakened colonialism in Africa.
  • The role of the Accra Conference held in Ghana in 1958 influenced the formation of PAM. The conference united both independent and struggling African countries. It shifted Pan Africanism from the diaspora and it got a home in Africa, it militarized African nationalism and encouraged the formation of political parties to capture power from the colonialists.
  • The role of the press and mass media had a strong impact on the growth of PAM. The news papers like Western African pilot by Nnamdi Azikibwe, the Accra evening news by NKrumah and the radio Cairo by Nasser that spread anti-colonial propaganda, all revived African culture and condemned colonialism thereby rekindling the spirit of nationalism.
  • The formation of political parties in Africa led to the development of these parties like PAIGC, MPLA, FLN, FRELIMO, UNC solicited for assistance from external sources like super powers, united Africans and sensitized them about the need for independence, adopted radical strategies to attain independence.

  • The role of artists MDD such as Lucky Dube, Chinua Achebe, these brought messages that condemned colonialists. These writers encouraged Africans to identify themselves with their culture and resist from cultural manipulation leading to the development of PAM.
  • The role of African elites/western education greatly influenced the development of PAM. The Africans who acquired colonial education like Kamuzu Banda, Kenneth Kaunda got exposed to the life of the colonial world; they exchanged ideas with the civilized and democratic people in France and America. These ideas changed the thinking of African elites to unite and form African government.
  • The formation of OAU in 1963 led to the growth of PAM. OAU united Africans on the
    continent, it decolonized African countries through extension of aids using its liberation committees, it imposed sanctions on colonial masters in South Africa, Southern Rhodesia, it encouraged economic prosperity through formation of regional bodies like COMESA, EAC that united Africans.


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