This was one of the greatest military events in South Africa that humiliated the British.
The raid was organized by the British on 20th December 1895 against the Boer republic of Transvaal headed by Paul Kruger.
It was an attempt by the British from the cape to overthrow the Transvaal government
The raid was planned by Cecil Rhodes, the leader of the British South African company and the Prime Minister of the cape colony.
The raid was led by Dr Leander StarJameson hence the Jameson raid. Jameson was assisted by Lt Frank Rhodes; an elder brother of Cecil Rhodes
CAUSE OF THE JAMESON RAID OF 1895
- The rumor in Britain that Paul Kruger would make Afrikaners a master race in South Africa.
- Paul Kruger’s determination to preserve the independence of Transvaal at all costs led to the raid.
- The need by the British under Cecil Rhodes to control the entire mineral belt Therefore he had to eliminate the Boers by war since they were not willing to leave peacefully.
- Paul Kruger’s government had refused Utilanders from speaking the English language on public occasions.
- Paul Kruger had refused to co-operate with the British for example he refused to accept the idea of the customs union.
- The Boers had refused to give civil rights to the Uitlanders. For example, they were denied voting rights.
- Heavy taxation of the Uitlanders by Paul Kruger, government also created a hostile environment that led to war.
- The growth of Boer nationalism more so after the Majuba victory also led to the raid. The British wanted to check on this nationalism before it could go far.
- The British wanted to show their military supremacy over Transvaal and re-dress their humiliation at Majuba hills by the Boers in the 1st Anglo – Boer war.
- The need to protect the Utilanders from the brutality of Paul Kruger by the British.
- Cecil Rhodes wanted the riches of Transvaal to come under the British control by force
- The violation of the Pretoria convention by Paul Kruger’s government. For example, Kruger refused to use cape- Transvaal railway line.
- The role of Flora Show; the editor of the “Times News Paper”.He had planned to justify the British action.
- Long-term enmity between the British and the Boers also led to the raid.
- The role of Frank Rhodes who smuggled guns into Transvaal