THE ROLE OF THE FRONTLINE STATES IN THE FIGHT AGAINST APARTHEID

THE ROLE OF THE FRONTLINE STATES IN THE FIGHT AGAINST APARTHEID

The Frontline states included Zambia, Tanzania, Angola, Mozambique and Malawi and their contribution can be assessed as follows.




  • They gave refugee to South African political fugitives and these included people like Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo which increased the campaigns against Apartheid South Africa.
  • The frontline states put up trade embargoes so as to cripple South Africa economically such that in the due course it could be urged to drop its Apartheid policies.
  • The Frontline states provided education to a number the South Africans and this sharpened them and taught other South Africans in South African the spirit of fighting imperialism.
  • The frontline states acted as mouth piece for the discontented masses within South Africa. They for instances exerted pressure on F. DeClerk to reduce on African suffering and release prisoners, the result were that a number of reforms were put after 1989.




  • The Frontline states provided military training to the guerillas against Apartheid a case in point is Mozambique and Angola which put in a lot of efforts to train ANC guerillas.
  • The Frontline states provided ANC guerillas with war logistics for example they provided them with food, medicine and uniforms plus ammunitions. It helped them in the struggle for independence.
  • The geography of the frontline states that is Forests and mountains provided ANC fighters with guerilla bases hence the hit and run tactics slowly but surely weakened the Pretorian Government.
  • After the independence of the frontline states the political freedom enjoyed inspired the South Africans to fight on.
  • The stories of successful liberation struggles against Portuguese rule in Angola and Mozambique made the South Africans determined to sacrifice their lives for the liberation of their states just as the Angolans and Mozambique had done.




However other than the role of frontline states there were other factors that facilitated the independence of South Africa.

  • The role of Steve Biko who inspired Africans to fight for their freedom, he was more prominent in 1976 Soweto uprisings.
  • The role of white liberals in and outside South Africa. These provide moral support and at times military support to the ANC fighters.
  • The role of OAU and UNO which acted as plat form of condemnation against Apartheid regime.
  • The diplomatic and economic sanctions of the international community against Apartheid South Apartheid.
  • The end of cold war politics 1989-1990.
  • The character of President F. DeClerk that is he was ready to grant changes in South Africa.
  • The attainment of Namibia’s independence in 1990 gave impetus to the South Africans to continue agitating for independence.




  • The break up of the triumvalent of Ian Smith, Doctor Verwood and Don Salazar especially by 1980.
  • The role of Music, Dance and Drama, people like Lucky Dube, Chaka Chaka, and Brenda Fassie these strongly advocated for the end of Apartheid regime.

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