The age sex pyramid with a broad base implies that the country has a higher young population, (more children and youths) characteristic of developing countries like Kenya. This indicates that there are more dependants who stress the working population and the economy. The broad base also indicates high birth rate. The narrow apex indicates that there are fewer older people due to low life expectancy
Where the pyramid has a narrow base as in the case of developed countries, it means fewer young people. Such pyramids are broad in the middle and again narrow at the top. A narrow base is an indicator of low birth rate. There are fewer young people depending on the working population leading to high standards of living. The broad apex indicates high life expectancy.
Here are some key aspects to consider when analyzing and interpreting age-sex pyramids:
- Shape of the pyramid: The overall shape of the pyramid provides an initial impression of the population structure. A pyramid with a broad base and tapering towards the top indicates a population with a high proportion of young individuals, commonly seen in developing countries with high fertility rates. In contrast, a pyramid with a more even or rectangular shape suggests a more balanced age distribution, typically observed in countries with low fertility and low mortality rates.
- Age groups and sex distribution: Analyze the age groups and sex distribution within the pyramid. Look for variations in the width of the bars or sections representing different age groups and sexes. Identifying differences in population sizes and proportions across age and sex categories can reveal insights into birth rates, mortality rates, and population growth.
- Dependency ratio: Assess the dependency ratio, which compares the economically dependent population (typically children and the elderly) to the working-age population. A higher dependency ratio indicates a larger proportion of dependents, which can have implications for social welfare, healthcare, and labor force dynamics.
- Population momentum: Examine the shape of the pyramid in the older age groups. A bulge in the older age categories can indicate a large cohort of individuals approaching retirement age, suggesting potential future challenges related to healthcare, pensions, and elderly care.
- Changes over time: Compare age-sex pyramids from different time periods to identify shifts in the population structure. Changes in the width, shape, or proportions of specific age groups can reflect shifts in fertility rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and social or economic factors.
- Implications for policy and planning: Use the insights gained from the age-sex pyramid analysis to inform policy and planning decisions. Understanding the demographic structure can guide resource allocation, healthcare planning, education policies, labor force strategies, and social welfare programs tailored to the specific needs of different age groups.
It’s important to note that age-sex pyramids should be analyzed alongside other demographic data, such as fertility rates, mortality rates, and migration patterns, to gain a comprehensive understanding of the population dynamics. Moreover, regional and cultural factors should also be considered when interpreting the findings, as demographic trends can vary across different countries and regions.