ROLES OF GHANA AND NKWAME NKRUMAH IN THE DECOLONISATION PROCESS OF AFRICA

ROLES OF GHANA AND NKWAME NKRUMAH IN THE DECOLONISATION PROCESS OF AFRICA

  • The independence of Ghana in May 1957 from British colonialism inspired other Africa countries that were still under British colonialism to demand for independence. It brought a wind of change such that in 1961 Sierra Leone and Tanganyika got their independence. Uganda in 1962, Kenya and Zanzibar in 1963, Gambia in 1965.




  • Ghana declared the 20th century as a century for Africa and the 1960s as a decade of decolonization. This became inspiring to all Africans to quickly achieve the independence of their countries. That is why very many African countries hurriedly got their independence beginning with 1960.
  • Nkrumah declared that the independence of Ghana alone would be meaningless if the rest of Africa remained under colonial bondage. He then provided moral, financial and military assistance to all nationalists striving for independence.
  • African countries learnt that independence could not be obtained on a silver plate. Africans had known of the peaceful demonstrators in Ghana in 1948, 1949 therefore such endured suffering shaped the hearts of the Africans to search for independence by which ever means.
  • Ghana became a base for Pan Africanism; in 1958 April Nkrumah called for the Pan African congress on the African soil in Accra, in December the same year he called another group for nationalists. Participants, delegates within these conferences like Patrice Lumumba of Congo, Tom Mboya of Kenya, Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika, Roberto Holden of Angola came out determined to do away with the colonialists and they are credited for having spear headed the independence struggles for their countries.




  • Ghana strengthened the press, allowed the use of radio Accra and the evening Newspapers to spread anti-colonial propaganda. This helped so much in the struggle for independence in the rest of Africa.
  • The idea of political parties and liberation movements was emulated partly from Ghana. The role of CPP and UGCC can not be under estimated and other countries like Kenya formed KANU and Convention Party by Tom Mboya attained Kenya’s self rule, in Mozambique FRELIMO was formed, and in South Africa ANC became stronger. Therefore credit should be given to Ghana in the struggle for African independence.
  • Ghana extended financial support to nationalists in Mozambique, Malawi, Congo, and Angola and to emphasize this for example Ghana extended a loan of 4,500,000pounds to Guinea Bissau Conakry in the fight against French colonialism.
  • African states adopted Ghandism or positive action as a method of fighting for African independence for it had proved successful in Ghana that is why strikes, boycotts, protests and demonstrations became rampant in Uganda, Nigeria, Zambia, Mozambique among others as these countries were demanding for independence.




  • Ghana and Nkrumah advocated for African unity, in 1958 for example Ghana initiated the Ghana Guinea union and described it as a nucleus of the United States of Africa. It was later joined by Mali and the three presidents that is Nkrumah, Seku Toure and Madibo Keita started discussing the prospects of African unity and extended support to liberation movements to else where in Africa.
  • In addition Ghana provided a training base for guerilla movements in Africa. The guerillas got military and academic training in Ghana and were even given Ghanaian passports and identity cards. This enhanced the struggle for independence. Beneficiaries of this included FRELIMO of Mozambique, SWAPO of Namibia, and MPLA of Angola.
  • Ghana and Nkrumah became arbitrators of the continent. They reconciled nationalists who had developed conflicts for example Nkrumah solved the conflict between Lumumba and Kasavubu in Congo, solved the differences of the ZANU and ZAPU in Zimbabwe. This created unity on the continent.
  • Ghana and Nkrumah within the UN forum exposed colonial evils and attracted sympathy from the international community for example Nkrumah in 1960 condemned the nuclear bomb test in Algeria. He described the situation there as pathetic, he also criticized the continued Portuguese colonialism and all this helped in the quick decolonization of Africa.




  • Ghana and Nkrumah condemned secessionist tendencies in Africa for example he dispatched Ghanaian troops in the 1960 -1963 to Congo to curb the Katanga secession. This was aimed at creating national unity for Congo.
  • Nkrumah worked hard to solve differences between Casablanca and Monrovia group for he could not live to see Africa torn apart, the differences were dissolved and the effect was the formation of OAU in 1963.
  • Ghana’s non Alignment ideology was quickly adopted, after 1955 Bandung conference, Nkrumah became a disciple and worked hard to spread non alignment ideas in relation to super power politics. This helped African states to concentrate rather than engage in cold war politics.
  • Nkrumah is also credited for fighting to protect the African environment. He condemned the 1959 nuclear bomb test at reggane in Algeria when he addressed at a special security conference in Accra. He stated that such tests were dangerous to African health and independence, when he complained in 1960 UN conference, the UN security organization followed it. However this was showing how much Nkrumah had Africa at heart.

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