FACTORS FOR THE EARLY INDEPENDENCE OF GHANA

FACTORS FOR THE EARLY INDEPENDENCE OF GHANA
  • Ethnic Unity almost 50% of the entire population were Akan speakers even the non Akan like the Ewe, Ga and Twi had adopted the Akan culture and language. This therefore became very easy for the nationalists to mobiles them.




  • The long time hatred of colonial rule by the people of Ghana, the Asante for instance had fought and defeated the whites twice during the imposition of colonial rule in the 19th century. Though they were defeated later, nationalism remained at heart for example in the 1930s the youth formed nationalistic parties that agitated for Ghana’s independence. Such pressure forced the British to change in their policies such that by around 1950 it was very clear that Ghana was to get its independence.
  • Ghana had a manageable population; by 1950 they had about 5 million citizens. They were very easy to organize and resist colonialism.
  • The large number of elites Ghana had enabled it pass on nationalistic ideas in a very corner of the country. Such people included JB Danquar, Adjei and William Ofori among others, they played a fundamental part.




  • Ghana had some how a stable economy getting a lot of revenue from cocoa and minerals like Gold, such revenue helped the nationalists to carry on their ideas.
  • The efficient transport network, Ghana was blessed with colonial infrastructures like roads, railways which allowed easy movement of nationalists in the struggle for independence for example the Accra Takoradi highway, ports of Tema and with such the independence struggle was eased.
  • The role of World War II can not be underestimated. Ghana for example became a base where raw materials were extracted and this meant that very many people were to move to towns to engage in trade where they faced so many problems, a chance that was exploited by very many nationalists to pressurize the British to grant independence. There are other effects of world d war II like invisibility of Whiteman destroyed, exposure of Africans to mass media, all these helped Ghana to attain independence as early as 1957.




  • Whites Monopolized trade, offered low prices to cocoa farmers and miners which helped to raise resentment the result of which was the demand for independence.
  • The outbreak of the swollen shoot disease. The British ordered the farmers to cut down the affected trees of cocoa without compensation. This annoyed very many people who joined political parties to do away with the colonialist which was achieved in 1957.
  • The role of the 1941 Atlantic Charter can not be under estimated in explaining Ghana’s early independence. The charter clearly stipulated sovereign rights to all colonized people which was emulated by the nationalists of UGGC and CPP to demand for their rights to liberate their own country.
  • In addition the inadequate constitutional changes for example the 1946 Burns constitution expanded African representation to the legco. However the British went on to appoint old chiefs who were even puppets and left the executive under the domination of the whites. This was unacceptable to nationalists like JB Danquar and Nkrumah. This facilitated nationalistic feelings such that by the 1950s the whole populace of Ghana wanted independence.




  • Despite the Loopholes with Burns constitution, Burns as a governor should be credited for having fueled the pace of events in the independence of Ghana. Historians assert that Burns was understanding, sympathetic, cooperative and accommodative to nationalistic views. This gave a breathing space for nationalism to develop in Ghana.
  • Later in the 1946 and in 1948 there were riots in Gold coast led by ex-service men joined by farmers and the elites unfortunately leading to the arrest of Danquar and Nkrumah. However this was a political development and these riots worried the British who hurriedly granted independence to Ghana before other colonies could copy the example.
  • The formation of UGCC in 1947 and CPP in 1949 played a greater role in the sensitization and mobilization of masses for independence. They criticized the colonial setting and by 1957 the pressure was too much for the British that independence was granted.
  • The charismatic leadership of Nkrumah. He was tall, handsome, young and eloquent with exceptional organizational abilities. He was friendly to school leavers, ex-service men, elites, when he came back in 1947 he gave a new life to the politics of Ghana, and ten years later he led it to independence.
  • The role of Sir Arden Clarke as governor of Ghana in 1949 was a blessing. He worked closely with Nkwame Nkrumah, he made reforms and consequently Ghana attained her independence in 1957.




  • The role of the press can not be under estimated in explaining the early independence of Ghana. Newspapers like the Accra evening News, the cape coast Daily mail which led to political awakening and consequently pressurized the British hence independence for Ghana.
  • The influence of the labor party, when clement Atlee rose to power in 1945 in Britain, he advocated for the decolonization of the entire British Empire. Atlee instructed Burns to grant constitutional changes in favor of Africans. Therefore it can be urged that the role of labor party neared the date for Ghana’s independence.
  • The role of UNO was also very paramount, in 1956 for example UNO organized a referendum among the Ewe tribes living in Western Togo who wanted to join their Ewe tribe mates in Gold coast, the results led to the unity of the Ewe tribe under Gold coast which increased the rate of nationalism in the country.
  • The role of the Manchester conference in 1945 which Nkrumah attended and adopted positive action which he used to lead Gold coast to independence.
  • Harsh reaction of the British in the 1948 riots, instead of discusing they reacted by shooting at the Africans rioting and then imprisoning Nkrumah and Danquar. This increased resentment and need for quick end to colonialism in Ghana.
  • Like other African countries, the independence of India and pakistan in 1947, China in 1948 increased nationalism in Ghana. These countries were under the same colonial master Britain like Ghana which convinced the Ghanaian nationalists that with extra pressure the British would grant them their independence.




  • The independence of Egypt in 1952 under the free officers’ movement convinced the Ghanaians that independence can not be achieved on a silver plate. This caused more riots and pressure which the British could not contain by 1957

RELATED POSTS

2 thoughts on “FACTORS FOR THE EARLY INDEPENDENCE OF GHANA”

  1. Pingback: REFORMS MADE BY KWAME NKRUMAH IN GHANA 1954 -1966

  2. Pingback: THE IMPACT OF THE ITALO - ETHIOPIAN CRISIS ON AFRICAN NATIONALISM

Comments are closed.

%d bloggers like this: