• Over 2 million people or so perished in cold blood since 1955 to 2005 and a lot of property destroyed including roads, homesteads, plantations, destroying the family ties and stability.

  • A number of rebel groups were formed in the South to fight for the Southern hegemony/ independence, these included the Nyanya and SPLA.
  • It brought to the lime light important personalities in the politics of southern Sudan like Joseph Lagu and John Garanga and Salva Kiir. These were very instrumental in determining the politics of this large state.
  • Sudan harboured terrorist groups as USA would want us to agree for example when Carols Dijacko was found in Sudan; the country attracted interest of intelligence operatives like CIA.
  • The war fostered cold war politics in the region. On many occasions USA, USSR, Israel and other Arab states came in to help either northern or southern Sudan.
  • Southern Sudan experienced substantial decline in the social standards of living, people lacked the basic needs like medicine, food resulting into misery. All this brought by the war ulcer.

  • The war hiked the refugee crisis in Africa. Countries like Uganda, Eritrea Congo harboured a number of Sudanese refugees which increased their budget and expenditure.
  • The war soured relations between Sudan and the neighbours for example for long Sudanese have been blaming the Ugandan government for supporting SPLA and in turn Sudan turned to support Kony rebels. This Saga created disunity.
  • The war led to coups in Sudan like 1969, then 1989, when Omar Bashir blamed President Ahmed al-Mirghani for failing to solve the Southern question. Bashir also faced stiff opposition from people who think he too failed to end the war.
  • Since 1955 to 2011 a number of humanitarian groups flocked Sudan to help the suffering masses for example the world food programme, African council of churches among others.
  • The war increased the number of political prisoners who suffered a lot of hostility and torture, Niemery for example reached an extent of killing, cutting off some of their body parts hence calling for international outcry to end the civil war.

  • The war further divided Africa on two fronts. While some supported Arab north like Egypt, Tunisia others like Uganda support the SPLA hence African unity a myth.
  • It also showed the weakness of OAU and UNO. These international bodies were supposed to enhance international peace but for long they remained toothless with little effort put to end the Sudan civil strife.
  • The Sudan civil war encouraged other civil wars in Africa. The bravery exposed by the southern nationals to the extent of achieving independence on 9th.july 2011 encouraged others like Chad, Somalian rebels to continue with the struggle. AFRICAN CULTURE: (a)What problems are independent African states facing in preserving their cultures? What are the possible solutions?
    Culture is the entire practice in life social, religious, economic and political values. Over the time Africa experienced a change in these values due to a number of problems which include;-
  • Foreign religions such as Christianity, Islam are overriding the traditional ones. This is further manifested in the deliberate teaching of Western religions in schools instead of traditional ones hence eroding African culture.
  • There is little written work for African culture and behavior. Those existing are not so much read because of the neo-colonial stances that “All African…are primitive… and all Europeans are civilization…”

  • The use of foreign languages in schools and the civil service has undermined African culture such languages like French, English are prominently used on the continent other than the indigenous ones.
  • The irrelevant education systems the African governments are clinging on do not address our local conditions like some elites do not know their true identity and do not appreciate local conditions and cultures.
  • The influence of Western literature and films which only tarnish African image and raise the status of whites’ forexample the bible portrays Jesus as white and Satan as black.
  • Failure to have a national language policy, save a few states like Kenya and T.Z which have adopted Swahili, the majority African states still have the colonial language as their national languages. This in place African culture is undermined.
  • Neo-colonialism is further blamed for under rating African culture forexample the dumping of second hand goods that are cheap and free goods in Africa especially by NGO’S has “killed” African craftsmanship hence retarding African culture.
  • Almost all independent countries have weak departments’ in charge with the responsibility of promoting African culture except Swaziland.

  • The influence of Western music, drama, soccer which have over ridden African style. Africans now enjoy musicians like Eminem, Justine Birber, and support football clubs like Liverpool, Chelsea, and neglect African style of entertainment.
  • Moral degeneration has hampered African culture. These days there is almost no distinction between the elders and the young yet the former mattered so much in keeping and protecting African values.
  • Poverty leading to presence of weak economies, this economic inferiority is making the Africans admire the west copying almost everything from dressing to politics.
  • The existence of political instabilities sponsored by the west has made Africa fail to have a stable national culture such as the civil war in Sudan since 1955, Somalia, Chad among other.
  • The colonial legacy of divide and rule leading to ethnicity, and regionalism making the preservation of African culture very difficult for example, the sharp divisions in Rwanda that resulted in the 1994 genocide.

  • Lack of socialization into our African political, economic or social culture from childhood. Education (formal) has made it worse for the children; most of their time is spent in schools which emphasize the western style of life.


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