• There was a cultural revolution in Libya; Ghadafi started by prohibiting all the imported ways of life like smoking, prostitution, and drinking Alcohol among others, this was in a bid to model the Libyan society to the original Islamic principles.

  • Arabic was re-installed as the official language in Libyan schools and offices. This was revitalized and enabled a number of people to access the civil and employment sectors.
  • A new political ideology was put in place that is the 3rd universal theory or Islamic law ‘’Sharia” This was to counteract the influence of socialism and capitalism in Libya.
  • There was formation of the revolutionary command council; it was headed by Muammar Ghadafi who wished to re-assert Libya’s independence against any sort of external influence. He began by resisting the spread of capitalism in Libya and also declared Jihad to any anti-Islamic state, especially Israel.
  • Nationalization of foreign enterprises. Ghadafi declared all Italian, American or British businesses, bases and others enterprises, property of the republic of Libya. He even took over the American air base of wheelus to show how committed he was on this agenda.

  • In 1970 Ghadafi ordered all foreign troops to vacate Libya forexample Americans to leave Wheelus and the British to leave Adem. This put Libya on map as a truly independent state to be reckoned with.
  • Ghadafi changed the names of all schools, restaurants, and passport writings among others in Arabic. This strengthened the Arabic identity of Libya hence nationalism in the whole country was revitalized.
  • Industrialization took foot following the 5 years development plan 1976-1980 which aimed at putting up light and heavy industries. Tripoli, Misurata became very important cities producing a lot of products, plastics, packed food, and aluminum among others
  • Coupled with the above oil refinery increased and this increased the country’s GDP for example by 1970 Libya produced about 3.7 million barrels a day. It then became the 5th producer of oil in OPEC. This boasted the country.

  • The education sector was improved; a number of schools, colleges, and universities were constructed. More interesting to note is that this education was to be free to every citizen from primary to university. This bridged a gap between the illiterates and elites for example primary education was compulsory yet secondary and universities optional.
  • After realizing that Libya will take so long to provide itself with efficient manpower, Ghadafi imported foreign expatriates especially from Islamic states like, Iraq, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and even allowed manual laborers from sister African states. This helped so much in enhancing economic development in Libya.
  • Infrastructural development was given keen interest as a number of roads, railway lines, and ports were put in place to facilitate easy movement of goods and services and ease penetration of the rural areas.
  • In the field of health a number of hospitals, dispensaries were put up to fight preventable diseases like Tuberculosis, whooping cough, by 1980 a number of bed ridden patients had reduced. Note; the services rendered in the hospitals were free of charge.

  • As a result of the revolution Libya became proud of a manageable population. The government took up steps to control the population such that every Libyan could access free education, a house, clean water and at least electricity and a basic pay monthly.
  • Ghadafi worked to reduce the income gap by providing employment for all and catering for the unemployed. Libya boosted of a fast growing economy and it was estimated that the average per capita income was 7000 dollars. Note; Libya had active trade unions which reduced exploitation of labour.
  • The Libyan government since 1969 under took a development plan to improve the standards of living for its citizens. It constructed residential houses and simply asked its people to move in. This made the 1969 coup a revolution.
  • The revolution enhanced Gadafi’s status in Libya, Africa and the world over. He impressed upon other leaders his charisma, and uncompromising attitude in solving the problems of the day to the extent that Ghadafism became a cult throughout Africa. Note; Gadafi may indisputably remain the greatest leader of Libya ever.

  • Ghadafi put up a 5year development plan from 1976-1980. This emphasized afforestation, reduction of soil erosion, and the famous “Green revolution” where the desert of Jafara was reclaimed plus other parts of the country. The government also extended funds to the farmers through cooperative societies.
  • Women’s emancipation was another step further in the course of the revolution. This was a new thing in the politics of Arabs. They freely participate in the civil service to the extent that they are the dominant participants .in the military they too played a significant role, even the presidential guard was manned by women during Ghadafis’ reign.
  • The revolution eliminated sectarianism, regionalism, and all sorts of discrimination. The revolutionary command council united the divergent provinces of Libya that is Fezzan, cyreniaca and Tripolitania. Such enhaced equal development in Libya.
  • In Libya since 1969, there was division of power to the grass root. This degree of democracy reduced civil wars, coups and counter coups in Libya. Note; Libya had about 964 popular committees to the grass root and on top there were the people’s committees guided by the general secretariat (R.cc.) This kind of democracy was termed as Jamahiriya (state of the masses.)

  • However the revolution had loopholes, these include;
  • Ghadafi refused to open political space for others, since 1969 he was president to 2011 this means that the emerging leaders of Libya were either molested or arrested. Hence creating tension, suspicion and mistrust throughout Libya.
  • He has associated with dictators like Amin of Uganda giving them moral, financial and military support to keep them reigning. This was a great disappointment to most of the pan-Africans. Ghadafi’s inner dictatorship was clearly manifested when in 2001 while in Uganda when he said “…revolutionary leaders do not leave power just like that…”
  • It was alleged that Ghadafi trained terrorist groups and killer squads for example his critics say he tried to assassinate President Reagan of the U.S.A and that he sent assassins who killed president Anwar Sadat of Egypt.
  • Ghadafi always supported civil strife in Africa like he supported the Muslims in Chad to destabilize the democratic state of Francios T from around 1965 and throughout the 1970s, in Sudan he has always supported the northern Arab government against the Negros in the South.
  • His greed for power hampered pan-Africanism, in O.A.U and Au summits a proposal for African unity was always dropped on suspicion that Ghadafi wanted to rule Africa in the way he ruled Libya.

  • Ghadafi was much more concerned with Arab politics than pan-Africanism. This created a very sharp difference between the Arab North and the Negro south. The Arab nations then became more concerned with the activities of the Arab league than the activities of OAU/AU


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